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基于部分供应中断的弹性供应链应急策略思考

日期:2021年(nian)09月(yue)08日 编辑:ad201107111759308692 作者:s11竞猜平台 点击次数:3
论文(wen)价格:150元/篇 论文编号:lw202108291448405293 论文(wen)字数:37855 所属栏(lan)目(mu):供(gong)应链论(lun)文
论文(wen)地区:中国 论文语种:中文 论文用途:硕士毕业论文 Master Thesis
相(xiang)关(guan)标签:供应链论文

本(ben)文是一篇供(gong)应(ying)(ying)(ying)链论(lun)文,本(ben)文基于突发肺炎疫情(qing)(qing)造(zao)成的 N95 医用杯型防护(hu)口罩(zhao)供(gong)应(ying)(ying)(ying)链发生的部(bu)分供(gong)应(ying)(ying)(ying)中断(duan)情(qing)(qing)景(jing),针对(dui)由供(gong)应(ying)(ying)(ying)商(shang)(shang)、制造(zao)商(shang)(shang)、分销中心、零售商(shang)(shang)组成的四(si)级供(gong)应(ying)(ying)(ying)链,通过嵌入(ru)外源供(gong)应(ying)(ying)(ying)、柔性补给、产能(neng)修(xiu)复三种中断(duan)应(ying)(ying)(ying)急策(ce)(ce)略,打(da)造(zao)弹(dan)性口罩(zhao)供(gong)应(ying)(ying)(ying)链运营(ying)体(ti)系,分别建立(li)以成本(ben)、利润、时效与恢复水平为决策(ce)(ce)指标(biao)的双目标(biao)非(fei)线性规(gui)划模型,应(ying)(ying)(ying)用数学建模以及 LINGO 12.0 编程求解方法,研究了非(fei)稳(wen)定状(zhuang)态下的弹(dan)性供(gong)应(ying)(ying)(ying)链应(ying)(ying)(ying)急策(ce)(ce)略选择以及产销存问题。


第 1 章  绪论


1.1  研(yan)究背景和意(yi)义(yi)

1.1.1  研究背景

在全球经(jing)济(ji)一体(ti)化融(rong)合发展、国内供(gong)(gong)给侧(ce)结构(gou)性改革的新(xin)时代背景(jing)下,市场(chang)竞(jing)争(zheng)模(mo)式逐渐转变为(wei)供(gong)(gong)应(ying)(ying)链与供(gong)(gong)应(ying)(ying)链之间(jian)的竞(jing)争(zheng),激(ji)烈的市场(chang)竞(jing)争(zheng)环(huan)境要(yao)求(qiu)(qiu)企业持续(xu)增强供(gong)(gong)给结构(gou)对(dui)需求(qiu)(qiu)变化的适应(ying)(ying)性和灵(ling)活性,使供(gong)(gong)给体(ti)系更好(hao)适应(ying)(ying)需求(qiu)(qiu)结构(gou)的变化,抵御(yu)突发供(gong)(gong)应(ying)(ying)中(zhong)断事件的冲(chong)击。

近年(nian)(nian)(nian)来,自(zi)然(ran)灾(zai)(zai)(zai)害、金融(rong)危机、工(gong)(gong)厂意外、政(zheng)府(fu)干(gan)预等突(tu)发(fa)事件(jian)造(zao)(zao)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)供(gong)(gong)(gong)应(ying)中(zhong)(zhong)断(duan)(duan)(duan)冲击(ji)愈(yu)来愈(yu)激烈。2000 年(nian)(nian)(nian) 3 月(yue)(yue),飞利浦芯(xin)片制造(zao)(zao)厂雷击(ji)着火使(shi)其损(sun)失(shi)(shi) 4000万美元的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)订(ding)单,并且导致(zhi)下(xia)游移动电(dian)话制造(zao)(zao)商(shang)爱立信因芯(xin)片供(gong)(gong)(gong)应(ying)不足遭(zao)受(shou) 23.4亿(yi)美元的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)巨额损(sun)失(shi)(shi),手(shou)机市场份(fen)额由(you) 12%下(xia)降至(zhi) 9%。2008 年(nian)(nian)(nian) 5 月(yue)(yue),汶(wen)川地震(zhen)(zhen)造(zao)(zao)成(cheng)剑南春公(gong)(gong)司(si)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)完全中(zhong)(zhong)断(duan)(duan)(duan) 3 个月(yue)(yue),销售中(zhong)(zhong)断(duan)(duan)(duan) 4 个月(yue)(yue),直接财产(chan)(chan)(chan)损(sun)失(shi)(shi) 8 亿(yi)元,全年(nian)(nian)(nian)因停(ting)(ting)产(chan)(chan)(chan)而造(zao)(zao)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)损(sun)失(shi)(shi)高达(da) 20 亿(yi)元。2011 年(nian)(nian)(nian) 3 月(yue)(yue),日本地震(zhen)(zhen)造(zao)(zao)成(cheng)汽车、电(dian)子等零部(bu)件(jian)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)厂停(ting)(ting)产(chan)(chan)(chan),导致(zhi)北(bei)美、德国、西(xi)班(ban)牙等通用(yong)汽车厂的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)大范围停(ting)(ting)滞,中(zhong)(zhong)国的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)日资(zi)汽车企业(ye)产(chan)(chan)(chan)量下(xia)滑,其中(zhong)(zhong)丰田(tian)产(chan)(chan)(chan)量减(jian)少(shao) 50%,本田(tian)减(jian)产(chan)(chan)(chan)量减(jian)少(shao)33%,福(fu)特的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)南京(jing)工(gong)(gong)厂暂时关闭(bi)检修 1 周,马自(zi)达(da)汽车将业(ye)绩目标(biao)下(xia)调 16%。2011年(nian)(nian)(nian) 5 月(yue)(yue),泰国洪灾(zai)(zai)(zai)导致(zhi)著名硬(ying)盘制造(zao)(zao)商(shang)希捷、西(xi)部(bu)数(shu)(shu)据(ju)、东芝 50%的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)硬(ying)盘供(gong)(gong)(gong)应(ying)中(zhong)(zhong)断(duan)(duan)(duan),全球硬(ying)盘的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)出(chu)货(huo)量在(zai)同(tong)年(nian)(nian)(nian)第(di)四季(ji)度下(xia)降 30%,2012 年(nian)(nian)(nian)第(di)一(yi)(yi)季(ji)度全球电(dian)脑出(chu)货(huo)量也随之下(xia)降 20%,日本与硬(ying)盘相关产(chan)(chan)(chan)业(ye)在(zai)此(ci)(ci)次(ci)洪灾(zai)(zai)(zai)中(zhong)(zhong)损(sun)失(shi)(shi)约 40 亿(yi)美元,Interner 公(gong)(gong)司(si)利润缩减(jian) 10 亿(yi)美元。2017 年(nian)(nian)(nian),全球的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)铜(tong)矿(kuang)供(gong)(gong)(gong)应(ying)链(lian)(lian)遭(zao)受(shou)到一(yi)(yi)系列事件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)干(gan)扰,屡次(ci)发(fa)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)供(gong)(gong)(gong)应(ying)中(zhong)(zhong)断(duan)(duan)(duan)事件(jian),首(shou)先是智利 Escondida 铜(tong)矿(kuang)工(gong)(gong)人(ren)罢工(gong)(gong)停(ting)(ting)产(chan)(chan)(chan),其分(fen)属于(yu)(yu)必和必拓公(gong)(gong)司(si),其次(ci)是印尼铜(tong)矿(kuang)停(ting)(ting)产(chan)(chan)(chan),其分(fen)属于(yu)(yu)美国自(zi)由(you)港迈克墨伦铜(tong)金公(gong)(gong)司(si),此(ci)(ci)后(hou)因为秘鲁(lu)洪灾(zai)(zai)(zai)导致(zhi)智利 E1Soldado 铜(tong)矿(kuang)停(ting)(ting)产(chan)(chan)(chan),其分(fen)属于(yu)(yu)英(ying)美资(zi)源集团。根据(ju) BCI(Business Continuity Institute,英(ying)国商(shang)业(ye)连续性研究协会)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)(yi)份(fen)调研数(shu)(shu)据(ju)显示,在(zai)受(shou)访的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de) 426 家(jia)企业(ye)当中(zhong)(zhong),接近 74%的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)企业(ye)至(zhi)少(shao)经(jing)历(li)过一(yi)(yi)次(ci)供(gong)(gong)(gong)应(ying)链(lian)(lian)中(zhong)(zhong)断(duan)(duan)(duan),有超过 50%的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)企业(ye)每(mei)年(nian)(nian)(nian)均经(jing)历(li) 6-20 次(ci)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)供(gong)(gong)(gong)应(ying)链(lian)(lian)中(zhong)(zhong)断(duan)(duan)(duan)。23%的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)公(gong)(gong)司(si)由(you)于(yu)(yu)节点中(zhong)(zhong)断(duan)(duan)(duan)造(zao)(zao)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)损(sun)失(shi)(shi)至(zhi)少(shao)在(zai) 110 万美金,每(mei)年(nian)(nian)(nian)由(you)于(yu)(yu)供(gong)(gong)(gong)应(ying)链(lian)(lian)中(zhong)(zhong)断(duan)(duan)(duan)造(zao)(zao)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)经(jing)济损(sun)失(shi)(shi)在(zai) 540-5500 亿(yi)美金。

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1.2  文献(xian)综述

1.2.1  供应(ying)链风险(xian)管理研(yan)究综述

SCRM(Supply Chain Risk Management,供(gong)应(ying)链(lian)(lian)风险(xian)管理(li))是(shi)(shi)供(gong)应(ying)链(lian)(lian)管理(li)的(de)重要组成(cheng)部分,刘家国(2018)等(deng)认(ren)为 SCRM 包(bao)括事(shi)前的(de)风险(xian)识(shi)别、评(ping)估,事(shi)中的(de)风险(xian)吸收、处理(li),事(shi)后的(de)风险(xian)监(jian)控(kong)、反馈(kui)等(deng),是(shi)(shi)面(mian)向供(gong)应(ying)链(lian)(lian)全过(guo)程(cheng)的(de)复杂管理(li)活动(dong)[1]。目前,学(xue)者关于 SCRM 的(de)研究也是(shi)(shi)针对 SCRM 流程(cheng)的(de)各(ge)个环节展开,主要包(bao)括供(gong)应(ying)链(lian)(lian)的(de)风险(xian)识(shi)别、风险(xian)评(ping)估、风险(xian)处理(li)、风险(xian)监(jian)控(kong)四个方面(mian)。

(1)供应链风险识别和评(ping)估

Fahimnia et al (2015)  认为供应(ying)(ying)链(lian)风(feng)(feng)险(xian)(xian)(xian)识(shi)(shi)别是 SCRM 的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)先决(jue)条件[2],常用的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)风(feng)(feng)险(xian)(xian)(xian)识(shi)(shi)别方(fang)(fang)法(fa)(fa)包(bao)括解释结构(gou)模(mo)(mo)型法(fa)(fa)、情景分(fen)(fen)析(xi)(xi)法(fa)(fa)[3]、环境(jing)扫(sao)描法(fa)(fa)、联合分(fen)(fen)析(xi)(xi)法(fa)(fa)[4]、德尔菲法(fa)(fa)等(deng)(deng)。王(wang)晔(ye)(2013)基于(yu)(yu)权变理论和模(mo)(mo)糊集合视角,从结构(gou)性(xing)和随机性(xing)维(wei)度去(qu)挖(wa)掘供应(ying)(ying)链(lian)风(feng)(feng)险(xian)(xian)(xian)根源[5]。金海水(shui)、刘永胜(2015)运用因(yin)果路径分(fen)(fen)析(xi)(xi)法(fa)(fa),识(shi)(shi)别农产(chan)(chan)品供应(ying)(ying)链(lian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)潜(qian)在风(feng)(feng)险(xian)(xian)(xian),进(jin)(jin)而构(gou)建“监管(guan)方(fang)(fang)-被监管(guan)方(fang)(fang)-消费者”三(san)位一(yi)体的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)质量(liang)监督(du)体系(xi)[6]。供应(ying)(ying)链(lian)风(feng)(feng)险(xian)(xian)(xian)识(shi)(shi)别是进(jin)(jin)行风(feng)(feng)险(xian)(xian)(xian)评(ping)(ping)(ping)(ping)估(gu)(gu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重要基础,郑小(xiao)京(jing)(2013)等(deng)(deng)认为评(ping)(ping)(ping)(ping)估(gu)(gu)者的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)主观性(xing)、评(ping)(ping)(ping)(ping)估(gu)(gu)方(fang)(fang)法(fa)(fa)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)科学性(xing)、评(ping)(ping)(ping)(ping)估(gu)(gu)体系(xi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)合理性(xing)是影响(xiang)评(ping)(ping)(ping)(ping)估(gu)(gu)结果的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)关键因(yin)素[7]。张学龙、张一(yi)纯(chun)(2017)针对(dui)(dui)航空(kong)物流风(feng)(feng)险(xian)(xian)(xian)因(yin)素之(zhi)间(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)变量(liang)依存特征,运用 ANP-AHP 组合方(fang)(fang)法(fa)(fa)测估(gu)(gu)七个枢纽机场的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)配送风(feng)(feng)险(xian)(xian)(xian)[8]。Chan  et  al(2014)运用模(mo)(mo)糊时间(jian)序(xu)列法(fa)(fa)(FTS)进(jin)(jin)行离散(san)事(shi)件仿真,预测供应(ying)(ying)链(lian)风(feng)(feng)险(xian)(xian)(xian)中(zhong)断(duan)发生的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)概率,并证明(ming) FTS 相对(dui)(dui)于(yu)(yu)其它(ta)预测方(fang)(fang)法(fa)(fa)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)优(you)越(yue)性(xing)[9]。杨曼(man)(2019)等(deng)(deng)考虑(lv)到传(chuan)(chuan)统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)失效模(mo)(mo)式与(yu)影响(xiang)分(fen)(fen)析(xi)(xi)方(fang)(fang)法(fa)(fa)(FMEA)在风(feng)(feng)险(xian)(xian)(xian)评(ping)(ping)(ping)(ping)估(gu)(gu)过程中(zhong)存在的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)专家(jia)决(jue)策主观偏好、风(feng)(feng)险(xian)(xian)(xian)因(yin)子相对(dui)(dui)权重设置等(deng)(deng)缺陷,结合云模(mo)(mo)型与(yu)区间(jian)二元混(hun)合加权距离测度提出(chu)改进(jin)(jin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de) FMEA 风(feng)(feng)险(xian)(xian)(xian)评(ping)(ping)(ping)(ping)价排序(xu)方(fang)(fang)法(fa)(fa),并运用实际案(an)例验证了该方(fang)(fang)法(fa)(fa)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)可(ke)行性(xing)[10]。潘盟(2019)等(deng)(deng)通过对(dui)(dui)上汽(qi)集团及合作企业的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)问卷调查,运用反向传(chuan)(chuan)播神经(jing)网(wang)络对(dui)(dui)汽(qi)车(che)供应(ying)(ying)链(lian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)潜(qian)在风(feng)(feng)险(xian)(xian)(xian)因(yin)素进(jin)(jin)行评(ping)(ping)(ping)(ping)估(gu)(gu),研究表明(ming)制造商的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)生产(chan)(chan)、意(yi)外、财(cai)产(chan)(chan)风(feng)(feng)险(xian)(xian)(xian)以及供应(ying)(ying)商的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)战(zhan)略分(fen)(fen)险(xian)(xian)(xian)对(dui)(dui)供应(ying)(ying)链(lian)系(xi)统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)影响(xiang)最(zui)为显著[11]。

(2)供应链(lian)风(feng)险处理(li)与监控

王宇(yu)奇(2015)等通(tong)过分析环境、行业、组织、决(jue)策者等诸多内外部因素(su)对(dui)供(gong)应(ying)(ying)链(lian)(lian)(lian)的(de)(de)影响,依据事(shi)件(jian)造成(cheng)供(gong)应(ying)(ying)链(lian)(lian)(lian)波(bo)(bo)动幅值的(de)(de)大(da)小把风(feng)(feng)(feng)(feng)险(xian)分为中(zhong)断(duan)(duan)风(feng)(feng)(feng)(feng)险(xian)和扰动风(feng)(feng)(feng)(feng)险(xian)[12]。中(zhong)断(duan)(duan)风(feng)(feng)(feng)(feng)险(xian)包括供(gong)应(ying)(ying)链(lian)(lian)(lian)供(gong)应(ying)(ying)中(zhong)断(duan)(duan)、生产(chan)中(zhong)断(duan)(duan)、运(yun)输路径中(zhong)断(duan)(duan)、需求(qiu)中(zhong)断(duan)(duan)等情形(xing),在(zai)中(zhong)断(duan)(duan)风(feng)(feng)(feng)(feng)险(xian)下,设(she)计(ji)供(gong)应(ying)(ying)链(lian)(lian)(lian)结构框架、制(zhi)定应(ying)(ying)急恢复(fu)策略(lve)(lve)等是(shi)处理中(zhong)断(duan)(duan)风(feng)(feng)(feng)(feng)险(xian)最(zui)为有(you)(you)效的(de)(de)手段。马卫(wei)明(2015)、肖建华(2018)等同(tong)时考(kao)虑(lv)供(gong)应(ying)(ying)端节点中(zhong)断(duan)(duan)和需求(qiu)端需求(qiu)波(bo)(bo)动因素(su),构建中(zhong)断(duan)(duan)-应(ying)(ying)急型供(gong)应(ying)(ying)链(lian)(lian)(lian)网络以应(ying)(ying)对(dui)突发事(shi)件(jian),发现带(dai)有(you)(you)风(feng)(feng)(feng)(feng)险(xian)抵(di)御能力的(de)(de)供(gong)应(ying)(ying)链(lian)(lian)(lian)网络能够有(you)(you)效减少中(zhong)断(duan)(duan)事(shi)件(jian)造成(cheng)的(de)(de)运(yun)营(ying)成(cheng)本损失(shi)[13-14]。赵霞(2017)等引入集成(cheng)生产(chan)设(she)施选址、产(chan)能决(jue)策、运(yun)输模式多选策略(lve)(lve),解决(jue)需求(qiu)和农产(chan)品原料(liao)价格波(bo)(bo)动的(de)(de)供(gong)应(ying)(ying)链(lian)(lian)(lian)网络鲁棒优化问(wen)题,增强供(gong)应(ying)(ying)链(lian)(lian)(lian)的(de)(de)风(feng)(feng)(feng)(feng)险(xian)抵(di)御能力[15]。

图 1-1  技术路线图

图 1-1  技术路线图

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第 2 章  弹性供应链基本理论与研究方法


2.1  供应链风险管理(li)流程(cheng)

Aqlan & Lam(2015)定义 SCRM 是(shi)用于识(shi)别、评(ping)(ping)(ping)估(gu)(gu)、缓解和(he)监控供(gong)应链中的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)潜在(zai)(zai)中断(duan)因素(su),以减少中断(duan)风(feng)(feng)险(xian)(xian)对(dui)供(gong)应链运营负面影响(xiang)(xiang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)种(zhong)系统化方(fang)法(fa)[55]。SCRM 流(liu)程(cheng)主(zhu)要分为四(si)个阶段,如图(tu) 2-1 所示,四(si)个阶段有着(zhe)内(nei)在(zai)(zai)联(lian)系,是(shi)一(yi)个不断(duan)递进(jin)(jin)(jin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)过程(cheng),即供(gong)应链风(feng)(feng)险(xian)(xian)识(shi)别是(shi)进(jin)(jin)(jin)行(xing)供(gong)应链风(feng)(feng)险(xian)(xian)评(ping)(ping)(ping)估(gu)(gu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)前提条件,同时也是(shi) SCRM 流(liu)程(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)首要步骤(zhou),通过对(dui)供(gong)应链风(feng)(feng)险(xian)(xian)因素(su)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)合(he)理划分,如图(tu) 2-2 所示,明确其系统性、层次性、动态(tai)性等特征,可以对(dui)风(feng)(feng)险(xian)(xian)发(fa)生的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)概率或者是(shi)风(feng)(feng)险(xian)(xian)发(fa)生后的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)影响(xiang)(xiang)程(cheng)度进(jin)(jin)(jin)行(xing)定量测度和(he)评(ping)(ping)(ping)估(gu)(gu),针对(dui)不同的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)风(feng)(feng)险(xian)(xian)特征,处理方(fang)法(fa)主(zhu)要包括风(feng)(feng)险(xian)(xian)规(gui)避、控制、转移、承担四(si)种(zhong)方(fang)式[56]。SCRM 过程(cheng)中需要对(dui)各风(feng)(feng)险(xian)(xian)因子(zi)进(jin)(jin)(jin)行(xing)有效的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)识(shi)别、评(ping)(ping)(ping)估(gu)(gu),事(shi)先制定风(feng)(feng)险(xian)(xian)应急策(ce)略,才能在(zai)(zai)风(feng)(feng)险(xian)(xian)发(fa)生时进(jin)(jin)(jin)行(xing)妥善(shan)处理,确保破(po)坏程(cheng)度控制在(zai)(zai)可接受范围(wei)之(zhi)内(nei),并在(zai)(zai)事(shi)后恢复阶段进(jin)(jin)(jin)行(xing)合(he)理的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)监控与反馈,预防风(feng)(feng)险(xian)(xian)事(shi)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)再次发(fa)生。

图 2-1  供应链风险管理流程

图 2-1  供(gong)应(ying)链风险(xian)管理(li)流(liu)程

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2.2  弹(dan)性(xing)供应链弹(dan)性(xing)概念辨(bian)析

“弹(dan)性(xing)”概念最早出现在物理学(xue)科范(fan)畴,是指外作(zuo)用力致使物体发生形变(bian)后,在外作(zuo)用力撤消时其(qi)大小和(he)形状仍可(ke)恢复到原始状态的(de)特(te)性(xing),随后这一(yi)概念逐渐在心理学(xue)、生态学(xue)、经济学(xue)、工程学(xue)等学(xue)科领(ling)域普及。2000 年(nian),英国人民不满油价(jia)上涨(zhang)进行示(shi)威抗议,第二年(nian)口蹄(ti)疫情突发造(zao)成商品(pin)供(gong)应链(lian)(lian)中断(duan),两(liang)起(qi)事(shi)件开始引起(qi)学(xue)者对弹(dan)性(xing)供(gong)应链(lian)(lian)研究的(de)关注。目前(qian),各国学(xue)者关于供(gong)应链(lian)(lian)弹(dan)性(xing)的(de)定义还没有形成统一(yi)的(de)标准,现将较(jiao)为典型的(de)定义列举(ju)如下(xia)表(biao) 2-1 所示(shi)。

表 2-1  供应链弹性的定义

表 2-1  供(gong)应链(lian)弹性的定义 

.......................


第 3 章  单周期弹性供应链应急决策成本模型 ............................ 17

3.1  问题(ti)描述和应(ying)急策略(lve).................................. 17

3.1.1  问题描述.................................. 17

3.1.2  应急(ji)策略(lve)......................... 18

第 4 章  多周期弹性供应链应急决策利润模型 ........................... 35

4.1  问题描(miao)述(shu)和应急(ji)策略................................ 36

4.2  基本(ben)假设和符号说明(ming)................................ 37

第 5 章  联合运输型弹性供应链应急决策时效模型 .......................... 46

5.1  问题界定与模型假(jia)设(she)................................... 47

5.2.1  问(wen)题界定................................ 47

5.2.2  模(mo)型假设.............................. 48


第 5 章  联合运输型弹性供应链应急决策时效模型


5.1  问题界定与模型假设

5.1.1  问题界(jie)定

为研究部(bu)分供应中断事件发生后期弹性供应链启动(dong)风险应急(ji)策略(lve)修复(fu)受损(sun)供应链

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