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心电图机行业售后员工敬业度影响因素探讨

日期(qi):2021年(nian)05月25日 编辑:ad201107111759308692 作者:s11竞猜平台 点(dian)击(ji)次数:272
论文价格:150元(yuan)/篇 论文编号:lw202105121149203401 论文字数:28441 所属栏目:企(qi)业管(guan)理(li)论文
论文地区:中(zhong)国 论文语种:中文 论文用途:硕士毕业论文 Master Thesis

本文是一篇企业(ye)管理(li)论文,本文结(jie)合国内外学者对员(yuan)工(gong)敬(jing)业(ye)度测量的研(yan)究,总结(jie)出多个(ge)(ge)(ge)对员(yuan)工(gong)敬(jing)业(ye)度具有影(ying)响力的影(ying)响因(yin)素(su)(su),然后运(yun)用(yong)德尔菲法,选出对心(xin)电图(tu)机行业(ye)售后员(yuan)工(gong)敬(jing)业(ye)度最具影(ying)响的因(yin)素(su)(su),分别为两个(ge)(ge)(ge)变(bian)量和(he)(he)十个(ge)(ge)(ge)指(zhi)标,其中(zhong)两个(ge)(ge)(ge)变(bian)量是工(gong)作资(zi)源因(yin)素(su)(su)和(he)(he)工(gong)作要(yao)求因(yin)素(su)(su),十个(ge)(ge)(ge)指(zhi)标分别是工(gong)作特征(zheng)、心(xin)理(li)氛围、高绩效的工(gong)作实践、薪酬满意(yi)、组织和(he)(he)社(she)会支持、工(gong)作负(fu)荷、人际冲(chong)突(tu)、角色冲(chong)突(tu)、工(gong)作家庭冲(chong)突(tu)、工(gong)作不安全感。


第一章 绪论


1.1 研究背景(jing)

现阶段,我(wo)国(guo)经济发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)已经进(jin)入到了转型升级阶段,企(qi)(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)竞争涉(she)及到方(fang)(fang)方(fang)(fang)面(mian)面(mian),尤其集(ji)中(zhong)在(zai)人(ren)(ren)才(cai)(cai)的(de)竞争方(fang)(fang)面(mian),随着人(ren)(ren)才(cai)(cai)竞争的(de)加剧,使(shi)得(de)企(qi)(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)管(guan)理(li)(li)层愈发(fa)(fa)将精力(li)(li)集(ji)中(zhong)到管(guan)理(li)(li)公司内(nei)部关(guan)系方(fang)(fang)面(mian)。同(tong)时(shi),它们(men)还(hai)使(shi)管(guan)理(li)(li)人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)认真考(kao)虑如何(he)吸引更多有用的(de)人(ren)(ren)才(cai)(cai)。人(ren)(ren)才(cai)(cai)是企(qi)(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)进(jin)行(xing)决策的(de)关(guan)键环节,人(ren)(ren)才(cai)(cai)为企(qi)(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)核(he)心,同(tong)时(shi)也是企(qi)(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)可(ke)持(chi)(chi)续发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)的(de)长期动力(li)(li)。对于(yu)(yu)人(ren)(ren)才(cai)(cai)的(de)竞争已经趋于(yu)(yu)白热化,而其核(he)心在(zai)于(yu)(yu)人(ren)(ren)才(cai)(cai)的(de)敬(jing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)程(cheng)度(du),因此(ci)企(qi)(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)管(guan)理(li)(li)人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)应(ying)当迫切(qie)需(xu)要改(gai)变旧(jiu)的(de)人(ren)(ren)力(li)(li)资源管(guan)理(li)(li)模式。因此(ci),越来越多的(de)经营者(zhe)开始创新管(guan)理(li)(li)模式。他们(men)必须考(kao)虑使(shi)用一种(zhong)鼓励计划(hua)(hua),该计划(hua)(hua)不(bu)仅可(ke)以(yi)改(gai)善员(yuan)工(gong)敬(jing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)度(du)并保(bao)持(chi)(chi)在(zai)职员(yuan)工(gong)的(de)工(gong)作状态高(gao)度(du)集(ji)中(zhong),而且(qie)还(hai)可(ke)以(yi)促(cu)进(jin)企(qi)(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)人(ren)(ren)力(li)(li)资源的(de)最大发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)。因此(ci),研(yan)究如何(he)提高(gao)员(yuan)工(gong)敬(jing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)度(du)是企(qi)(qi)(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)持(chi)(chi)续稳(wen)定发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)的(de)当务之急。

通用电(dian)气公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)前董事长兼首席执行官杰克(ke)·韦尔奇(Jack Welch)提出:衡量公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)稳(wen)定(ding)性的(de)(de)(de)三(san)个指(zhi)(zhi)标(biao),即资(zi)金周(zhou)转率,客(ke)户(hu)满意(yi)度(du)(du)(du)和(he)(he)(he)员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)敬(jing)(jing)业(ye)(ye)度(du)(du)(du)。这(zhei)表明员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)敬(jing)(jing)业(ye)(ye)度(du)(du)(du)是组(zu)织卓越的(de)(de)(de)必要条件。从员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)感受和(he)(he)(he)看法上来说,员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)敬(jing)(jing)业(ye)(ye)是对(dui)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)的(de)(de)(de)一(yi)种承诺(nuo)和(he)(he)(he)投资(zi),就员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)情(qing)感和(he)(he)(he)认知而(er)言(yan),敬(jing)(jing)业(ye)(ye)度(du)(du)(du)是对(dui)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)的(de)(de)(de)一(yi)种承诺(nuo)和(he)(he)(he)投入。敬(jing)(jing)业(ye)(ye)度(du)(du)(du)高(gao)的(de)(de)(de)员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)对(dui)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)关注的(de)(de)(de)业(ye)(ye)务(wu)绩(ji)效(xiao)指(zhi)(zhi)标(biao)有(you)更(geng)大的(de)(de)(de)影响,其业(ye)(ye)务(wu)绩(ji)效(xiao)指(zhi)(zhi)标(biao)包括工(gong)(gong)(gong)作效(xiao)率,客(ke)户(hu)忠(zhong)(zhong)诚度(du)(du)(du),员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)保留率,安(an)全性和(he)(he)(he)产值;员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)敬(jing)(jing)业(ye)(ye)度(du)(du)(du)为员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)创(chuang)造(zao)了(le)良(liang)好的(de)(de)(de)环(huan)境并充(chong)分发挥其优势的(de)(de)(de)基(ji)础上,每个员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)都(dou)有(you)归属(shu)感、主(zhu)(zhu)人(ren)翁(weng)意(yi)识和(he)(he)(he)责任感。这(zhei)些高(gao)度(du)(du)(du)敬(jing)(jing)业(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)(de)员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)创(chuang)造(zao)了(le)组(zu)织的(de)(de)(de)主(zhu)(zhu)要利润(run)和(he)(he)(he)客(ke)户(hu)忠(zhong)(zhong)诚度(du)(du)(du),只有(you)这(zhei)些员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)才能帮助(zhu)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)实现其业(ye)(ye)务(wu)目标(biao)和(he)(he)(he)成果(guo)。公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)管理层可以从多个角度(du)(du)(du)改善员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)敬(jing)(jing)业(ye)(ye)度(du)(du)(du),以实现提高(gao)公(gong)(gong)司(si)(si)(si)(si)(si)绩(ji)效(xiao)的(de)(de)(de)目标(biao)。

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1.2 研究意义

1.2.1 实践意(yi)义

首先,这项研究有(you)助(zhu)于心(xin)(xin)(xin)电(dian)(dian)(dian)图(tu)机(ji)(ji)行(xing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)人(ren)(ren)力资源了(le)(le)解售(shou)后(hou)(hou)(hou)员(yuan)工(gong)的(de)(de)敬(jing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)度(du)(du),并为心(xin)(xin)(xin)电(dian)(dian)(dian)图(tu)机(ji)(ji)行(xing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)管理人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)管理售(shou)后(hou)(hou)(hou)员(yuan)工(gong)提(ti)供(gong)理论支持和(he)具体(ti)策略。心(xin)(xin)(xin)电(dian)(dian)(dian)图(tu)机(ji)(ji)行(xing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)管理人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)可以(yi)(yi)使(shi)用此调(diao)查了(le)(le)解售(shou)后(hou)(hou)(hou)员(yuan)工(gong)敬(jing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)度(du)(du)的(de)(de)现状,然(ran)后(hou)(hou)(hou)根(gen)据心(xin)(xin)(xin)电(dian)(dian)(dian)图(tu)机(ji)(ji)行(xing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)售(shou)后(hou)(hou)(hou)员(yuan)工(gong)的(de)(de)实际情况采取有(you)效(xiao)措(cuo)施,以(yi)(yi)提(ti)高心(xin)(xin)(xin)电(dian)(dian)(dian)图(tu)机(ji)(ji)行(xing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)售(shou)后(hou)(hou)(hou)员(yuan)工(gong)的(de)(de)敬(jing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)度(du)(du),改善心(xin)(xin)(xin)电(dian)(dian)(dian)图(tu)机(ji)(ji)行(xing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)售(shou)后(hou)(hou)(hou)员(yuan)工(gong)的(de)(de)工(gong)作积(ji)极性,从而(er)(er)增加企业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)价值。同时,加强售(shou)后(hou)(hou)(hou)服务人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)对心(xin)(xin)(xin)电(dian)(dian)(dian)图(tu)机(ji)(ji)行(xing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)个人(ren)(ren)忠诚度(du)(du),从而(er)(er)使(shi)得服务人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)与(yu)公(gong)司形成稳定(ding)的(de)(de)合作关系(xi),进而(er)(er)实现企业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)长足发(fa)展。除(chu)此之外,对服务人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)敬(jing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)度(du)(du)进行(xing)研究还有(you)利于心(xin)(xin)(xin)电(dian)(dian)(dian)图(tu)机(ji)(ji)行(xing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)售(shou)后(hou)(hou)(hou)人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)的(de)(de)职业(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)(ye)发(fa)展,从而(er)(er)扩大了(le)(le)售(shou)后(hou)(hou)(hou)人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)的(de)(de)自身价值。

1.2.2 理论意(yi)义

丰富了(le)(le)员(yuan)工(gong)(gong)敬(jing)(jing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)理论。近些(xie)年来有(you)很多(duo)国(guo)内外学者从(cong)各个(ge)角(jiao)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)研究(jiu)(jiu)了(le)(le)员(yuan)工(gong)(gong)敬(jing)(jing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du),也得出(chu)了(le)(le)很具代表性(xing)的(de)研究(jiu)(jiu)结果(guo),但是(shi)理论还不够完善,有(you)待进一步研究(jiu)(jiu)。员(yuan)工(gong)(gong)敬(jing)(jing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)是(shi)管理实践领(ling)域关注的(de)重要话题,学术界已经认识到了(le)(le)敬(jing)(jing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)对(dui)员(yuan)工(gong)(gong)个(ge)人与(yu)企业(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)影(ying)响。因此本(ben)文将(jiang)研究(jiu)(jiu)对(dui)象(xiang)聚(ju)焦(jiao)于心(xin)电(dian)图机行业(ye)(ye)(ye)售后人员(yuan)敬(jing)(jing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du),并讨论该群体(ti)(ti)的(de)敬(jing)(jing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)的(de)影(ying)响因素,并从(cong)两(liang)个(ge)维度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)(即工(gong)(gong)作要求(qiu)因素与(yu)资(zi)源(yuan)因素)选出(chu)影(ying)响因素,然后运(yun)用德(de)尔菲法选取(qu)最具影(ying)响力的(de)影(ying)响因素,进行研究(jiu)(jiu),增(zeng)加员(yuan)工(gong)(gong)敬(jing)(jing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)影(ying)响研究(jiu)(jiu)的(de)全(quan)面性(xing),从(cong)而(er)完善敬(jing)(jing)业(ye)(ye)(ye)度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)理论体(ti)(ti)系(xi)。

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第二章 文献综述


2.1 员工敬业(ye)度的定(ding)义

2.1.1 国外关于员工敬业度内涵的研(yan)究

敬业(ye)(ye)(ye)度是(shi)一(yi)(yi)个(ge)较为宽泛的(de)(de)(de)概念(nian)(nian),学(xue)(xue)术界尚(shang)未对该(gai)概念(nian)(nian)的(de)(de)(de)界定(ding)形成(cheng)(cheng)统一(yi)(yi)的(de)(de)(de)标(biao)准。由于(yu)敬业(ye)(ye)(ye)度的(de)(de)(de)概念(nian)(nian)不仅(jin)仅(jin)是(shi)一(yi)(yi)个(ge)人力资源(yuan)的(de)(de)(de)概念(nian)(nian),还(hai)涉及到企(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)管理等方(fang)面,各个(ge)专(zhuan)业(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)(de)学(xue)(xue)者研(yan)究(jiu)的(de)(de)(de)角度不同导致了(le)其(qi)对敬业(ye)(ye)(ye)度概念(nian)(nian)的(de)(de)(de)解释有所区(qu)别,因(yin)此(ci)界定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)内容也有所出入。和中国(guo)(guo)流传下(xia)来(lai)(lai)(lai)的(de)(de)(de)敬业(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)(de)观念(nian)(nian)不一(yi)(yi)样,国(guo)(guo)外学(xue)(xue)者们研(yan)究(jiu)敬业(ye)(ye)(ye)得出的(de)(de)(de)内涵并(bing)非品(pin)德(de)、精(jing)神,敬业(ye)(ye)(ye)度的(de)(de)(de)定(ding)义侧(ce)重于(yu)员(yuan)工(gong)职(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)发(fa)展计划(hua)以及在工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)场所中的(de)(de)(de)实际角色(se)。如果员(yuan)工(gong)把他(ta)所做的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)看作(zuo)(zuo)是(shi)他(ta)个(ge)人职(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)发(fa)展规划(hua)的(de)(de)(de)一(yi)(yi)部分(fen)(fen),或者是(shi)能(neng)(neng)使他(ta)事业(ye)(ye)(ye)有成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)一(yi)(yi)个(ge)垫脚石,他(ta)将越来(lai)(lai)(lai)越努力地(di)完成(cheng)(cheng)所有工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo),在努力工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)甚(shen)至是(shi)过(guo)度劳累的(de)(de)(de)同时,他(ta)将继续学(xue)(xue)习(xi)并(bing)充实自己的(de)(de)(de)知识,以便将来(lai)(lai)(lai)能(neng)(neng)够更好地(di)发(fa)展。换(huan)句话说(shuo),外国(guo)(guo)学(xue)(xue)者的(de)(de)(de)敬业(ye)(ye)(ye)精(jing)神是(shi)建立在员(yuan)工(gong)自身的(de)(de)(de)基础上的(de)(de)(de),是(shi)员(yuan)工(gong)职(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)发(fa)展的(de)(de)(de)组成(cheng)(cheng)部分(fen)(fen)。由于(yu)企(qi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)绩效决定(ding)了(le)员(yuan)工(gong)能(neng)(neng)否(fou)成(cheng)(cheng)功迈入下(xia)一(yi)(yi)个(ge)更好的(de)(de)(de)职(zhi)业(ye)(ye)(ye)发(fa)展阶段,因(yin)此(ci)员(yuan)工(gong)敬业(ye)(ye)(ye)的(de)(de)(de)直接(jie)目标(biao)就是(shi)提高绩效。

最早定义员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)敬(jing)(jing)(jing)业(ye)度(du)概(gai)念的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)学(xue)者是管理科学(xue)家 Kahn(1990),他(ta)认为(wei)(wei)敬(jing)(jing)(jing)业(ye)度(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)概(gai)念特(te)指(zhi)一(yi)(yi)个(ge)(ge)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)状态(tai),即员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)通(tong)(tong)过全身心的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)投(tou)入到工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)中(zhong)(zhong),将自身的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)能(neng)力(li)展现(xian)出来,从而为(wei)(wei)公(gong)司(si)(si)带(dai)来积(ji)极的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)影响(xiang),提升公(gong)司(si)(si)绩效(xiao)。而员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)敬(jing)(jing)(jing)业(ye)度(du)较(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)低(di)时,员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)可(ke)(ke)能(neng)出现(xian)脱离(li)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)岗位的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)情(qing)(qing)况,他(ta)将无(wu)法实现(xian)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)岗位所要(yao)求(qiu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)绩效(xiao),并且可(ke)(ke)能(neng)随(sui)时离(li)开。因此(ci)(ci),Kahn 认为(wei)(wei)敬(jing)(jing)(jing)业(ye)度(du)情(qing)(qing)况可(ke)(ke)以(yi)分(fen)为(wei)(wei)三个(ge)(ge)不同(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)维度(du),第一(yi)(yi)维度(du)为(wei)(wei)身体(ti)参(can)(can)(can)(can)与(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu),生理参(can)(can)(can)(can)与(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)就是员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)任务(wu)时全身心将自己投(tou)入到角色之(zhi)中(zhong)(zhong);第二(er)维度(du)为(wei)(wei)认知(zhi)参(can)(can)(can)(can)与(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu),具体(ti)指(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)企业(ye)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)明(ming)(ming)确明(ming)(ming)白自身在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)中(zhong)(zhong)职(zhi)责,从而能(neng)够(gou)(gou)在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)中(zhong)(zhong)保(bao)持(chi)积(ji)极昂扬的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)状态(tai)。第三维度(du)为(wei)(wei)情(qing)(qing)感(gan)(gan)参(can)(can)(can)(can)与(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu),情(qing)(qing)感(gan)(gan)参(can)(can)(can)(can)与(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)即员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)够(gou)(gou)在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)自身的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)中(zhong)(zhong)和上(shang)(shang)级、下级的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)思想和行为(wei)(wei)保(bao)持(chi)统一(yi)(yi),能(neng)够(gou)(gou)及时对(dui)公(gong)司(si)(si)中(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)情(qing)(qing)况作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)出反(fan)馈。他(ta)认为(wei)(wei)三个(ge)(ge)维度(du)较(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)为(wei)(wei)独立(li),诸如员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)认知(zhi)参(can)(can)(can)(can)与(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)与(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)身体(ti)参(can)(can)(can)(can)与(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)较(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)高(gao),但(dan)是在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)情(qing)(qing)绪(xu)上(shang)(shang)投(tou)入的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)较(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)少,则(ze)整体(ti)敬(jing)(jing)(jing)业(ye)度(du)会(hui)受(shou)到一(yi)(yi)定程(cheng)度(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)影响(xiang)。因此(ci)(ci)员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)这三个(ge)(ge)维度(du)中(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)(yi)个(ge)(ge)维度(du)表现(xian)出非常(chang)投(tou)入,则(ze)其(qi)(qi)敬(jing)(jing)(jing)业(ye)度(du)水(shui)平较(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)。Maslach(1999)认为(wei)(wei),敬(jing)(jing)(jing)业(ye)度(du)和工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)倦(juan)怠(dai)情(qing)(qing)况联系(xi)较(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)高(gao),两者为(wei)(wei)对(dui)立(li)关(guan)系(xi),他(ta)认为(wei)(wei)随(sui)着个(ge)(ge)人(ren)倦(juan)怠(dai)水(shui)平的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)提升,敬(jing)(jing)(jing)业(ye)度(du)以(yi)及个(ge)(ge)人(ren)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)情(qing)(qing)感(gan)(gan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)投(tou)入会(hui)显(xian)著下降,总体(ti)来说倦(juan)怠(dai)程(cheng)度(du)较(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)通(tong)(tong)常(chang)情(qing)(qing)况下的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)效(xiao)率较(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)低(di),同(tong)时个(ge)(ge)人(ren)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)精力(li)不足(zu),无(wu)法将精力(li)集(ji)中(zhong)(zhong)在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)中(zhong)(zhong),与(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)伙伴也不能(neng)顺利(li)沟通(tong)(tong)。除(chu)此(ci)(ci)之(zhi)外,当员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)敬(jing)(jing)(jing)业(ye)度(du)较(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)时,其(qi)(qi)更多的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)会(hui)把(ba)精力(li)投(tou)入到工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)中(zhong)(zhong),加之(zhi)其(qi)(qi)情(qing)(qing)绪(xu)较(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)为(wei)(wei)稳定,能(neng)够(gou)(gou)和同(tong)事友好(hao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)相处,办事效(xiao)率较(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)。

图 3.1 德尔菲法的实施框架

图 3.1 德(de)尔菲法的实施框架

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2.2 员工敬业(ye)度(du)的结构研究(jiu)

2.2.1 国外(wai)关于员工敬业度的结构研(yan)究

敬(jing)业(ye)度(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)概(gai)念(nian)(nian)不单(dan)单(dan)是(shi)某一(yi)(yi)(yi)项(xiang)(xiang)指(zhi)标构成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),这是(shi)一(yi)(yi)(yi)个(ge)(ge)(ge)多维(wei)(wei)度(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)概(gai)念(nian)(nian)。Kahn(1990)认为(wei)(wei),敬(jing)业(ye)度(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)衡量(liang)(liang)(liang)指(zhi)标分(fen)(fen)(fen)为(wei)(wei)三个(ge)(ge)(ge)不同(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)维(wei)(wei)度(du)(du)(du),分(fen)(fen)(fen)别(bie)为(wei)(wei)生理(li)(li)状态(tai)维(wei)(wei)度(du)(du)(du)、认知维(wei)(wei)度(du)(du)(du)、情(qing)绪维(wei)(wei)度(du)(du)(du),具(ju)体(ti)代表的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)为(wei)(wei)价值意义、安全和(he)(he)稳定(ding)性(xing)(xing)(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)心理(li)(li)状况(kuang),以(yi)(yi)及(ji)两(liang)种类(lei)型的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)我雇佣和(he)(he)自(zi)我表达。根(gen)据 Kahn 的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)研究结果,May 等学(xue)者(2004)通过(guo)路径分(fen)(fen)(fen)析方(fang)法(fa)对(dui)上(shang)述的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)各项(xiang)(xiang)代表进(jin)(jin)(jin)行(xing)了进(jin)(jin)(jin)一(yi)(yi)(yi)步的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)细化,通过(guo)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)内(nei)容、主管(guan)管(guan)理(li)(li),工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)适应(ying)性(xing)(xing)(xing),公(gong)司(si)(si)系(xi)统,同(tong)事(shi)关系(xi),自(zi)我控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi),公(gong)司(si)(si)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)内(nei)部(bu)和(he)(he)外(wai)(wai)部(bu)资(zi)源以(yi)(yi)及(ji)公(gong)司(si)(si)活动进(jin)(jin)(jin)行(xing)了量(liang)(liang)(liang)化。他们的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)研究发现(xian),员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)敬(jing)业(ye)度(du)(du)(du)越(yue)(yue)高(gao),员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)对(dui)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重视程度(du)(du)(du)就(jiu)越(yue)(yue)高(gao),工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)安全感(gan)(gan)就(jiu)越(yue)(yue)强,顺(shun)利工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)可能(neng)性(xing)(xing)(xing)就(jiu)越(yue)(yue)大(da)。工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)内(nei)容越(yue)(yue)丰富,员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)适应(ying)能(neng)力(li)(li)越(yue)(yue)强,工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)越(yue)(yue)有意义,员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)鼓(gu)励和(he)(he)支(zhi)持(chi)程度(du)(du)(du)越(yue)(yue)高(gao),对(dui)上(shang)级的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)支(zhi)持(chi)度(du)(du)(du)以(yi)(yi)及(ji)信任(ren)感(gan)(gan)越(yue)(yue)高(gao),则(ze)(ze)(ze)员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)个(ge)(ge)(ge)人(ren)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安全感(gan)(gan)越(yue)(yue)高(gao)。反之,若员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)受到了公(gong)司(si)(si)规章制(zhi)(zhi)度(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)限制(zhi)(zhi)以(yi)(yi)及(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)我控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)限制(zhi)(zhi),则(ze)(ze)(ze)员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安全感(gan)(gan)则(ze)(ze)(ze)会越(yue)(yue)低。除此(ci)之外(wai)(wai),员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)内(nei)容以(yi)(yi)及(ji)员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)在公(gong)司(si)(si)中的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)适应(ying)性(xing)(xing)(xing)还能(neng)够通过(guo)中介(jie)变量(liang)(liang)(liang)来进(jin)(jin)(jin)行(xing)调节,员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)个(ge)(ge)(ge)人(ren)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安全感(gan)(gan)则(ze)(ze)(ze)作(zuo)(zuo)为(wei)(wei)中介(jie)变量(liang)(liang)(liang)对(dui)自(zi)我控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)以(yi)(yi)及(ji)敬(jing)业(ye)度(du)(du)(du)进(jin)(jin)(jin)行(xing)了调节。Tower Sperrin(2007)认为(wei)(wei)敬(jing)业(ye)度(du)(du)(du)主要分(fen)(fen)(fen)为(wei)(wei)三个(ge)(ge)(ge)维(wei)(wei)度(du)(du)(du),分(fen)(fen)(fen)别(bie)为(wei)(wei)员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)活力(li)(li)、员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)个(ge)(ge)(ge)人(ren)奉献精(jing)(jing)神(shen)、员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)对(dui)于工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)专注度(du)(du)(du),以(yi)(yi)上(shang)三个(ge)(ge)(ge)维(wei)(wei)度(du)(du)(du)分(fen)(fen)(fen)别(bie)代表了员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)劲头(tou)、员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)主观责任(ren)感(gan)(gan)、以(yi)(yi)及(ji)员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)部(bu)分(fen)(fen)(fen)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)能(neng)力(li)(li)。Schaufeli(2009)认为(wei)(wei)员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)敬(jing)业(ye)度(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)衡量(liang)(liang)(liang)主要为(wei)(wei)两(liang)方(fang)面,分(fen)(fen)(fen)别(bie)为(wei)(wei)情(qing)感(gan)(gan)敬(jing)业(ye)度(du)(du)(du)以(yi)(yi)及(ji)理(li)(li)性(xing)(xing)(xing)敬(jing)业(ye)度(du)(du)(du),前者指(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)是(shi)员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)为(wei)(wei)了能(neng)够完成(cheng)企业(ye)设置(zhi)(或自(zi)我设置(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de))绩效目标而进(jin)(jin)(jin)行(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)情(qing)感(gan)(gan)投入(ru),而后者指(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)是(shi)员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)为(wei)(wei)了能(neng)够实现(xian)自(zi)我晋(jin)升,可以(yi)(yi)从(cong)公(gong)司(si)(si)获得更多的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)报酬等而进(jin)(jin)(jin)行(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)努力(li)(li)投资(zi)。Macey andSchneider(2010)认为(wei)(wei)员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)敬(jing)业(ye)度(du)(du)(du)需(xu)要通过(guo)三个(ge)(ge)(ge)方(fang)面量(liang)(liang)(liang)进(jin)(jin)(jin)行(xing)衡量(liang)(liang)(liang),即特征、精(jing)(jing)神(shen)以(yi)(yi)及(ji)行(xing)动,特征和(he)(he)精(jing)(jing)神(shen)即员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)在长期的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)中而形成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)责任(ren)意识(shi)(shi)与精(jing)(jing)神(shen)意识(shi)(shi),行(xing)动意识(shi)(shi)则(ze)(ze)(ze)是(shi)员(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)具(ju)体(ti)行(xing)动。

..............................


第三章 心电图机行业售后员工敬业度现状调查设计和分析............14

3.1 心电图机行业现状 ................ 14

3.2 员工敬业度在(zai)心电图机行业售后部(bu)门的影(ying)响 ................... 14

第四章 心电图机行业售后员工敬业度提升策略........................38

4.1 工(gong)作资源因素方面对售后(hou)员工(gong)敬业度的提升(sheng)建议 ......................... 38

4.1.1 针(zhen)对工作特(te)征的提(ti)升建议.........................38

4.1.2 针对组织和社会支持和心理氛围的提升建议...........................38

第五章 研究的结论与展望.................42

5.1 研究(jiu)结论 ..................... 42

5.2 研(yan)究不足(zu)和展望 ......................... 42


第四章 心电图机行业售后员工敬业度提升策略


4.1 工作资(zi)源因素方面对售(shou)后(hou)员工敬业度的提升建议

4.1.1 针对工作特征的(de)提升建议(yi)

工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)特征是指(zhi)工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)本身的(de)价值,这体现(xian)在技能的(de)多样(yang)性,自(zi)主性和可(ke)学习(xi)性上。为了最(zui)大限度地发挥售(shou)后人员在工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)特征方(fang)面(mian)的(de)参(can)与度,有必要将工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)进行合理的(de)设(she)计(ji),即(ji)工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)内容方(fang)面(mian)的(de)设(she)计(ji)、工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)功能方(fang)面(mian)的(de)设(she)计(ji)连带着工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)关系方(fang)面(mian)的(de)设(she)计(ji)。售(shou)后服务人员的(de)员工(gong)(gong)敬业(ye)度离(li)不开工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)本身的(de)特点,具体而适当(dang)的(de)任(ren)务是员工(gong)(gong)完成自(zi)己的(de)任(ren)

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