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我国优秀残疾人单板滑雪运动员运动机能评价体系构建的探讨

日期:2021年05月(yue)25日 编辑(ji):ad201107111759308692 作者:s11竞猜平台 点击次数:270
论文价格:150元(yuan)/篇 论文编号:lw202105121446503657 论文字(zi)数:28555 所属栏目:康复医(yi)学论文
论文地(di)区(qu):中国 论文(wen)语种:中文(wen) 论(lun)文用途:硕士(shi)毕业论(lun)文 Master Thesis

本(ben)文是一篇康复医学论文,本(ben)文采(cai)用层次分(fen)(fen)析(xi)法确(que)立(li)了我国优秀残(can)疾(ji)人单(dan)板(ban)滑(hua)雪(xue)运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)员运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)评价(jia)指(zhi)标的 6 个一级指(zhi)标的权重(zhong)和 14 个二(er)级指(zhi)标的权重(zhong)。采(cai)用累进记分(fen)(fen)法建(jian)立(li)我国优秀残(can)疾(ji)人单(dan)板(ban)滑(hua)雪(xue)运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)评分(fen)(fen)标准(zhun),通过评分(fen)(fen)标准(zhun)可以判(pan)断运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)员的机(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)状态,并为其进行打分(fen)(fen)。同(tong)时(shi),在运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)评分(fen)(fen)标准(zhun)的基础上,采(cai)用百分(fen)(fen)位法建(jian)立(li)了运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)等级标准(zhun)。按照运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)评价(jia)标准(zhun)对我国优秀残(can)疾(ji)人单(dan)板(ban)滑(hua)雪(xue)运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)员运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)水平进行综合评价(jia),构(gou)建(jian)运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)评价(jia)体系。


1.前言


1.1 选题依据

1.1.1 北京冬奥会(hui)、冬残奥会(hui)的良好契(qi)机(ji)

2015 年(nian) 7 月 31 日(ri),中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)北(bei)京(jing)(jing)和(he)张家口成(cheng)功(gong)获得(de) 2022 年(nian)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)季奥(ao)(ao)(ao)运会(hui)(hui)(hui)和(he)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)季残奥(ao)(ao)(ao)会(hui)(hui)(hui)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)主办(ban)权。北(bei)京(jing)(jing)成(cheng)为唯一同时举(ju)办(ban)夏季奥(ao)(ao)(ao)运会(hui)(hui)(hui)和(he)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)季奥(ao)(ao)(ao)运会(hui)(hui)(hui)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)城市。2022年(nian)北(bei)京(jing)(jing)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)奥(ao)(ao)(ao)会(hui)(hui)(hui)对我国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家发展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)和(he)体(ti)(ti)育(yu)(yu)事业(ye)发展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)具(ju)有(you)重要(yao)意(yi)(yi)义。它将(jiang)促进我国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)经济的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)快速发展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan),提(ti)升我国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)际(ji)形象(xiang),增强我国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)政治影响力(li),凝聚民族精神,有(you)助(zhu)于(yu)建(jian)设体(ti)(ti)育(yu)(yu)强国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo),提(ti)高(gao)(gao)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)季体(ti)(ti)育(yu)(yu)项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)竞(jing)争力(li)。冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)奥(ao)(ao)(ao)会(hui)(hui)(hui)作为全球性(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)综(zong)合(he)(he)性(xing)体(ti)(ti)育(yu)(yu)赛事,为各(ge)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)体(ti)(ti)育(yu)(yu)健(jian)儿(er)提(ti)供了(le)切磋竞(jing)技(ji)(ji)体(ti)(ti)育(yu)(yu)技(ji)(ji)艺、增进了(le)文化交流的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)平(ping)台。我国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)代(dai)表(biao)团(tuan)在(zai)(zai)北(bei)京(jing)(jing)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)奥(ao)(ao)(ao)会(hui)(hui)(hui)上(shang)取得(de)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)成(cheng)绩,将(jiang)引起中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)人民和(he)世界的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)高(gao)(gao)度关注(zhu)。随着 2022 年(nian)北(bei)京(jing)(jing)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)奥(ao)(ao)(ao)会(hui)(hui)(hui)、冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)残奥(ao)(ao)(ao)会(hui)(hui)(hui)举(ju)办(ban)时间的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)不断临近,举(ju)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)上(shang)下将(jiang)办(ban)好 2022 年(nian)北(bei)京(jing)(jing)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)奥(ao)(ao)(ao)会(hui)(hui)(hui)置于(yu)首要(yao)地位。习近平(ping)同志在(zai)(zai)十九大(da)报告中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)提(ti)出,“办(ban)好 2022 年(nian)北(bei)京(jing)(jing)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)奥(ao)(ao)(ao)会(hui)(hui)(hui)、冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)残奥(ao)(ao)(ao)会(hui)(hui)(hui),是(shi)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)向(xiang)世界奥(ao)(ao)(ao)运大(da)家庭的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)郑重承诺。”“在(zai)(zai)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)奥(ao)(ao)(ao)会(hui)(hui)(hui)、冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)残奥(ao)(ao)(ao)会(hui)(hui)(hui)召开之(zhi)际(ji),中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)体(ti)(ti)育(yu)(yu)事业(ye)正处于(yu)发展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)新(xin)阶段、新(xin)征程,要(yao)深入(ru)(ru)推广全民健(jian)身运动(dong)(dong),使我国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)在(zai)(zai)未来由体(ti)(ti)育(yu)(yu)大(da)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)向(xiang)体(ti)(ti)育(yu)(yu)强国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)发展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)迈进。”2022 年(nian)北(bei)京(jing)(jing)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)奥(ao)(ao)(ao)会(hui)(hui)(hui)和(he)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)残奥(ao)(ao)(ao)会(hui)(hui)(hui)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)成(cheng)功(gong)举(ju)办(ban),对中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)具(ju)有(you)划(hua)时代(dai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)历史(shi)意(yi)(yi)义。它不仅代(dai)表(biao)着综(zong)合(he)(he)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)力(li)和(he)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家形象(xiang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)提(ti)高(gao)(gao),而且为我国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)冰(bing)雪(xue)运动(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)普(pu)及(ji)和(he)体(ti)(ti)育(yu)(yu)事业(ye)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)转(zhuan)型(xing)升级带来了(le)难得(de)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan),为实现中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)华民族的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)伟大(da)复兴“中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)梦(meng)”注(zhu)入(ru)(ru)了(le)新(xin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)动(dong)(dong)力(li)。北(bei)京(jing)(jing)奥(ao)(ao)(ao)运会(hui)(hui)(hui)必将(jiang)是(shi)奥(ao)(ao)(ao)运会(hui)(hui)(hui)历史(shi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)又(you)一里程碑(bei)。与北(bei)京(jing)(jing) 2022 年(nian)冬(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)奥(ao)(ao)(ao)会(hui)(hui)(hui)最直接相(xiang)关的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)是(shi)竞(jing)技(ji)(ji)体(ti)(ti)育(yu)(yu)。我国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)冰(bing)雪(xue)运动(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)竞(jing)技(ji)(ji)水(shui)平(ping)不仅反(fan)映了(le)冰(bing)雪(xue)项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)最高(gao)(gao)实力(li),也反(fan)映了(le)我国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)体(ti)(ti)育(yu)(yu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)综(zong)合(he)(he)发展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)水(shui)平(ping)。我国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)竞(jing)技(ji)(ji)体(ti)(ti)育(yu)(yu)“冰(bing)强雪(xue)弱”的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)长远发展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan),要(yao)求备战(zhan)人员(yuan)在(zai)(zai)有(you)限的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)时间内(nei)合(he)(he)理高(gao)(gao)效地安排(pai)各(ge)项(xiang)(xiang)项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)。其(qi)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)首要(yao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)就是(shi)明确(que)客观地了(le)解我国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)冰(bing)雪(xue)运动(dong)(dong)发展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)现状。中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)选手(shou)更适合(he)(he)体(ti)(ti)能技(ji)(ji)巧型(xing)冰(bing)雪(xue)项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu),因此,单板滑雪(xue)作为即要(yao)求技(ji)(ji)巧又(you)要(yao)求体(ti)(ti)能的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)潜在(zai)(zai)优势(shi)项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)应大(da)力(li)发展(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)(zhan),重点关注(zhu)。

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1.2 研究目的(de)

对(dui)单(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)板(ban)(ban)(ban)(ban)滑(hua)(hua)(hua)雪(xue)(xue)(xue)项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)(mu)残(can)(can)疾运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)员(yuan)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)评(ping)(ping)价(jia)的(de)(de)研究(jiu)目(mu)(mu)的(de)(de)是从理论(lun)研究(jiu)以及实践应用(yong)两(liang)个层面出(chu)发,构建我(wo)国(guo)优秀残(can)(can)疾人(ren)(ren)单(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)板(ban)(ban)(ban)(ban)滑(hua)(hua)(hua)雪(xue)(xue)(xue)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)员(yuan)的(de)(de)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)评(ping)(ping)价(jia)体系。为提(ti)(ti)(ti)升(sheng)我(wo)国(guo)残(can)(can)疾人(ren)(ren)单(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)板(ban)(ban)(ban)(ban)滑(hua)(hua)(hua)雪(xue)(xue)(xue)项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)(mu)的(de)(de)训练监(jian)控水(shui)平提(ti)(ti)(ti)供有(you)效依据,并为提(ti)(ti)(ti)升(sheng)我(wo)国(guo)该项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)(mu)在 2022 年北(bei)京(jing)冬残(can)(can)奥运(yun)(yun)(yun)会(hui)上(shang)的(de)(de)竞争(zheng)力积极助(zhu)力。通过对(dui)残(can)(can)疾人(ren)(ren)单(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)板(ban)(ban)(ban)(ban)滑(hua)(hua)(hua)雪(xue)(xue)(xue)国(guo)家队(dui)提(ti)(ti)(ti)供生(sheng)理生(sheng)化指标监(jian)控,建立运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)评(ping)(ping)价(jia)体系。以我(wo)国(guo)残(can)(can)疾人(ren)(ren)单(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)板(ban)(ban)(ban)(ban)滑(hua)(hua)(hua)雪(xue)(xue)(xue)国(guo)家队(dui)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)员(yuan)作(zuo)为研究(jiu)对(dui)象(xiang),对(dui)机(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)评(ping)(ping)价(jia)系统进行实践应用(yong)验(yan)证,并根(gen)据不同残(can)(can)疾人(ren)(ren)单(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)板(ban)(ban)(ban)(ban)滑(hua)(hua)(hua)雪(xue)(xue)(xue)队(dui)伍客(ke)观(guan)现实、运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)员(yuan)身体机(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)的(de)(de)综合(he)水(shui)平等(deng),优化机(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)评(ping)(ping)价(jia)体系,使其更(geng)加科学、客(ke)观(guan)、便(bian)利、易操作(zuo)。促进我(wo)国(guo)残(can)(can)疾人(ren)(ren)单(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)板(ban)(ban)(ban)(ban)滑(hua)(hua)(hua)雪(xue)(xue)(xue)项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)(mu)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)员(yuan)机(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)评(ping)(ping)价(jia)的(de)(de)综合(he)量化,为其他残(can)(can)疾人(ren)(ren)雪(xue)(xue)(xue)上(shang)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)(mu)的(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)评(ping)(ping)价(jia)做出(chu)参考(kao)。

表 1 部分测试指标及选用仪器

表 1 部分测试指标及选用仪器(qi)

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2.文献综述


2.1 单板滑雪运动项目的简介与(yu)发展现状(zhuang)

单(dan)板(ban)(ban)滑(hua)(hua)雪(xue)(xue)运动(dong)兴起于上(shang)(shang)(shang)世纪(ji) 60 年代(dai)初的(de)(de)美国,此项目的(de)(de)产生目前有两(liang)种说(shuo)法(fa)。有一种说(shuo)法(fa)是源(yuan)自双(shuang)板(ban)(ban)滑(hua)(hua)雪(xue)(xue)说(shuo),即 Sherman popan 在 1962 年尝试(shi)将两(liang)块滑(hua)(hua)雪(xue)(xue)板(ban)(ban)连接(jie)在一起,在不经意(yi)间便(bian)创造了概念意(yi)义(yi)上(shang)(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)“滑(hua)(hua)雪(xue)(xue)板(ban)(ban)”。另一种被大(da)众普遍接(jie)受的(de)(de)说(shuo)法(fa)是,单(dan)板(ban)(ban)滑(hua)(hua)雪(xue)(xue)与冲浪(lang)(lang)运动(dong)有关。单(dan)板(ban)(ban)滑(hua)(hua)雪(xue)(xue)又称冬(dong)季(ji)的(de)(de)冲浪(lang)(lang)运动(dong),1929 年滑(hua)(hua)水(shui)爱好(hao)者杰克(ke)·波(bo)切克(ke)在下雪(xue)(xue)的(de)(de)冬(dong)季(ji)里把家里的(de)(de)一块木板(ban)(ban)系上(shang)(shang)(shang)晾衣服(fu)的(de)(de)绳子上(shang)(shang)(shang),尝试(shi)到外面的(de)(de)雪(xue)(xue)坡上(shang)(shang)(shang)滑(hua)(hua)行,这是单(dan)板(ban)(ban)雏形的(de)(de)第(di)一次出现[1]。作为冲浪(lang)(lang)运动(dong)的(de)(de)雪(xue)(xue)上(shang)(shang)(shang)延伸,单(dan)板(ban)(ban)滑(hua)(hua)雪(xue)(xue)利(li)用身体和双(shuang)脚来(lai)控制运动(dong)方向。单(dan)板(ban)(ban)滑(hua)(hua)雪(xue)(xue)是由竞(jing)速(su)和技(ji)巧(qiao)性为主的(de)(de)两(liang)类(lei)性质截然不同的(de)(de)项目组成。根据(ju)北京 2022 年冬(dong)奥会(hui)的(de)(de)最新分(fen)类(lei),单(dan)板(ban)(ban)滑(hua)(hua)雪(xue)(xue)的(de)(de)小(xiao)项包括:平行大(da)回转、障(zhang)碍追逐、U 型场地技(ji)巧(qiao)、坡面障(zhang)碍技(ji)巧(qiao)、以(yi)及单(dan)板(ban)(ban)大(da)跳台。

2.1.1 我(wo)国单板滑(hua)雪运动项(xiang)目(mu)简介以及该项(xiang)目(mu)的发展现状

单(dan)板(ban)滑(hua)雪(xue)是(shi)我国快速崛起(qi)的(de)(de)新兴竞(jing)技(ji)(ji)体育项(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu),是(shi)我国冬(dong)奥会(hui)的(de)(de)优势项(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)之一。无论是(shi)健全人(ren)单(dan)板(ban)滑(hua)雪(xue)运动(dong)(dong)(dong)项(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)还是(shi)残疾人(ren)单(dan)板(ban)滑(hua)雪(xue)运动(dong)(dong)(dong)项(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)都在我国起(qi)步较(jiao)晚(wan),但发展势态(tai)迅(xun)猛,是(shi) 2022 年北(bei)京冬(dong)奥会(hui)冬(dong)残奥会(hui)的(de)(de)重点(dian)夺金拿奖的(de)(de)项(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)。如果以(yi)竞(jing)技(ji)(ji)运动(dong)(dong)(dong)项(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)开展的(de)(de)类目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)与(yu)形式进行分析,单(dan)板(ban)滑(hua)雪(xue)运动(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)增(zeng)长是(shi)显而易见的(de)(de)。单(dan)板(ban)滑(hua)雪(xue)项(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu) 1983 年于美国首次(ci)竞(jing)技(ji)(ji)比(bi)赛(sai),随后正式纳(na)入(ru)日(ri)(ri)本长野冬(dong)奥会(hui)的(de)(de)比(bi)赛(sai)日(ri)(ri)程,并增(zeng)加(jia)了 U 型场地技(ji)(ji)巧项(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)及高山大回(hui)转(zhuan)项(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)。在美国盐湖(hu)城冬(dong)奥会(hui)赛(sai)事中,U 型场地技(ji)(ji)巧项(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)仍(reng)是(shi)保(bao)留项(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu),同(tong)时增(zeng)加(jia)单(dan)板(ban)双(shuang)人(ren)平行回(hui)转(zhuan)项(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)取代单(dan)人(ren)大回(hui)转(zhuan)项(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)。在都灵(ling)冬(dong)奥会(hui)中又增(zeng)加(jia)多人(ren)追逐(zhu)赛(sai),由此冬(dong)奥会(hui)滑(hua)雪(xue)运动(dong)(dong)(dong)项(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)扩增(zeng)至 3 项(xiang)。从冬(dong)奥会(hui)赛(sai)事发展趋势上可知,滑(hua)雪(xue)运动(dong)(dong)(dong)在冬(dong)奥会(hui)中具有广阔的(de)(de)发展潜力。

图 1 残疾人单板滑雪运动员运动机能体系构建技术路线

图 1 残疾人(ren)单板滑雪(xue)运动(dong)员运动(dong)机(ji)能体系构建技术路线

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2.2 关(guan)(guan)于运动机能及其指标(biao)的(de)相关(guan)(guan)研究

机(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)一般(ban)是指(zhi)物质(zhi)(对象)系统(tong)某一部(bu)分的(de)(de)(de)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)和(he)(he)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)力(li)。它包括细(xi)胞组(zu)织或器官(guan)的(de)(de)(de)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)和(he)(he)活动能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)力(li),也可以指(zhi)人体(ti)器官(guan)的(de)(de)(de)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)和(he)(he)活动能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)力(li)。机(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)是与(yu)(yu)(yu)有(you)(you)(you)机(ji)(ji)(ji)体(ti)的(de)(de)(de)形式(shi)或结构相对应的(de)(de)(de)概(gai)(gai)念(nian),具有(you)(you)(you)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)的(de)(de)(de)含(han)义,但(dan)也被认为是包括任务、功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)和(he)(he)其(qi)他目的(de)(de)(de)的(de)(de)(de)含(han)义。例如,当提到一个(ge)器官(guan)的(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)时(shi),大多数(shu)是指(zhi)器官(guan)在整个(ge)有(you)(you)(you)机(ji)(ji)(ji)体(ti)中所(suo)共有(you)(you)(you)的(de)(de)(de)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)。在机(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)概(gai)(gai)念(nian)的(de)(de)(de)讨论(lun)中,通常(chang)有(you)(you)(you)“身(shen)体(ti)机(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)”、“生(sheng)理(li)(li)(li)机(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)”、“运动机(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)”等学术概(gai)(gai)念(nian)来表(biao)达身(shen)体(ti)的(de)(de)(de)综(zong)合(he)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng),也有(you)(you)(you)“神经机(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)”“呼吸机(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)”和(he)(he)“心血(xue)管机(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)”等学术概(gai)(gai)念(nian)来表(biao)达身(shen)体(ti)部(bu)分系统(tong)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)。例如在综(zong)合(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)的(de)(de)(de)表(biao)达名词中,身(shen)体(ti)机(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)是指(zhi)人或动物各生(sheng)理(li)(li)(li)组(zu)织构成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)整体(ti),有(you)(you)(you)时(shi)也特指(zhi)躯干和(he)(he)四(si)肢。身(shen)体(ti)机(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)在人体(ti)生(sheng)理(li)(li)(li)学中指(zhi)人的(de)(de)(de)整体(ti)及(ji)其(qi)组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)各器官(guan),系统(tong)所(suo)表(biao)现的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)命活动。生(sheng)理(li)(li)(li)机(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)常(chang)被简称(cheng)为“机(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)”、与(yu)(yu)(yu)生(sheng)理(li)(li)(li)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)通用,也简称(cheng)为“功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)”,但(dan)是意思上(shang)与(yu)(yu)(yu)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)有(you)(you)(you)细(xi)微差别。

运动(dong)(dong)机能(neng)是指(zhi)机体在(zai)运动(dong)(dong)训练(lian)过(guo)程中(zhong)新陈代谢的功能(neng),以(yi)及各器官(guan)系(xi)统的工作能(neng)力。身体机能(neng)指(zhi)标在(zai)运动(dong)(dong)员的评价(jia)中(zhong)应用广泛而(er)且技术日益成(cheng)熟,在(zai)对运动(dong)(dong)员的机能(neng)进行评价(jia)时(shi)应利用多种机能(neng)指(zhi)标进行综合(he)对比(bi)的研(yan)究评价(jia)。

运(yun)(yun)(yun)动员(yuan)(yuan)在(zai)日(ri)常训练(lian)(lian)中所产(chan)生的(de)(de)(de)(de)连锁生理(li)反应(ying)是(shi)依据训练(lian)(lian)强度的(de)(de)(de)(de)真实(shi)反映,即代(dai)表运(yun)(yun)(yun)动情况(kuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)应(ying)激响应(ying)。而运(yun)(yun)(yun)动员(yuan)(yuan)实(shi)时(shi)身体(ti)机(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)水(shui)平对(dui)于(yu)合理(li)开展训练(lian)(lian)强度、提升赛事(shi)水(shui)平具有重要的(de)(de)(de)(de)指(zhi)导(dao)价值,也正相关地影响着运(yun)(yun)(yun)动员(yuan)(yuan)在(zai)日(ri)常训练(lian)(lian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)状态和赛事(shi)活动中的(de)(de)(de)(de)竞(jing)技(ji)水(shui)平发挥(hui)(hui)。机(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)作为体(ti)能(neng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)关键构成(cheng)要素(su),一(yi)方面机(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)是(shi)体(ti)能(neng)于(yu)内部(bu)层次上的(de)(de)(de)(de)真实(shi)体(ti)现,另(ling)一(yi)方面体(ti)能(neng)则是(shi)机(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)在(zai)外界(jie)的(de)(de)(de)(de)功能(neng)响应(ying)。所以(yi),较佳的(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)水(shui)平能(neng)够增(zeng)强运(yun)(yun)(yun)动员(yuan)(yuan)体(ti)能(neng)发挥(hui)(hui),同(tong)时(shi)状态不佳的(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)也会(hui)给(ji)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动员(yuan)(yuan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)体(ti)能(neng)状态带来(lai)负面的(de)(de)(de)(de)影响。目(mu)(mu)前,针对(dui)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动员(yuan)(yuan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)研究(jiu)主要集中在(zai)健全人(ren)的(de)(de)(de)(de)各个(ge)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动项目(mu)(mu)中,在(zai)残疾人(ren)的(de)(de)(de)(de)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动项目(mu)(mu)中少有涉(she)猎。因此(ci),本(ben)文所参考的(de)(de)(de)(de)关于(yu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)能(neng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)相关研究(jiu)观点大部(bu)分来(lai)自于(yu)对(dui)健全运(yun)(yun)(yun)动员(yuan)(yuan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)研究(jiu)

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3.研究对象与方法....................13

3.1 研究对(dui)象..............................13

3.2 研究方法...............................13

4.研究思路及技术路线.................................15

4.1 研究(jiu)思路(lu)...........................15

4.2 技术(shu)路(lu)线.............................16

5 研究结果与分析......................... 17

5.1 残疾人单板(ban)滑雪运动员运动机能体(ti)系的综合评价(jia)..........................17

5.1.1 构(gou)建机(ji)能(neng)综合评(ping)价体(ti)系的基本要素...................................17

5.2 构建机(ji)能评价体系的原则...................19


5 研究结果与分析


5.1 残疾人(ren)单板滑雪运(yun)动(dong)员运(yun)动(dong)机能(neng)体系的综合评价(jia)

在日(ri)常训(xun)练或比赛(sai)中,单(dan)板(ban)(ban)滑(hua)雪(xue)残疾人运(yun)动员(yuan)(yuan)身(shen)体(ti)(ti)运(yun)动机(ji)能水(shui)平(ping)会(hui)对最(zui)终成绩产生重要的(de)(de)(de)影响,如(ru)在赛(sai)前教(jiao)练员(yuan)(yuan)能借助相关(guan)训(xun)练对运(yun)动员(yuan)(yuan)的(de)(de)(de)身(shen)体(ti)(ti)机(ji)能状(zhuang)态(tai)(tai)进行有效(xiao)调整(zheng),便能将运(yun)动员(yuan)(yuan)的(de)(de)(de)运(yun)动状(zhuang)态(tai)(tai)调节至最(zui)佳(jia)水(shui)平(ping)。在以往单(dan)板(ban)(ban)滑(hua)雪(xue)体(ti)(ti)育(yu)比赛(sai)中,受(shou)制(zhi)于(yu)科研发(fa)展滞后、训(xun)练意识不足等因素,对运(yun)动员(yuan)(yuan)的(de)(de)(de)机(ji)能状(zhuang)态(tai)(tai)判断较多的(de)(de)(de)依(yi)赖(lai)于(yu)教(jiao)练员(yuan)(yuan)的(de)(de)(de)经验以及少数的(de)(de)(de)检测手段(duan),缺乏综(zong)合评(ping)(ping)价(jia)(jia)方(fang)法与手段(duan)。本篇(pian)论文旨在对残疾人单(dan)板(ban)(ban)滑(hua)雪(xue)运(yun)动员(yuan)(yuan)机(ji)能评(ping)(ping)价(jia)(jia)的(de)(de)(de)理论研究(jiu)以及各个系统(tong)机(ji)能评(ping)(ping)价(jia)(jia)研究(jiu)的(de)(de)(de)基础上,搭建单(dan)板(ban)(ban)滑(hua)雪(xue)运(yun)动项(xiang)目(mu)残疾运(yun)动员(yuan)(yuan)身(shen)体(ti)(ti)机(ji)能指标(biao)评(ping)(ping)价(jia)(jia)体(ti)(ti)系,设计评(ping)(ping)价(jia)(jia)各项(xiang)身(shen)体(ti)(ti)机(ji)能指标(biao)的(de)(de)(de)综(zong)合标(biao)准依(yi)据,来完善单(dan)板(ban)(ban)滑(hua)雪(xue)项(xiang)目(mu)运(yun)动员(yuan)(yuan)身(shen)体(ti)(ti)机(ji)能指标(biao)的(de)(de)(de)预期状(zhuang)态(tai)(tai)。

5.1.1 构建机(ji)能(neng)综合评(ping)标体系的基(ji)本要(yao)素(su)

体育评(ping)(ping)(ping)价(jia)(jia)(jia)是指(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)利(li)用评(ping)(ping)(ping)价(jia)(jia)(jia)学的(de)理(li)论和(he)方(fang)法对体育项(xiang)目(mu)中(zhong)的(de)研究(jiu)对象开展价(jia)(jia)(jia)值分析的(de)综合(he)(he)过程。一(yi)般来说,科学合(he)(he)理(li)的(de)综合(he)(he)评(ping)(ping)(ping)价(jia)(jia)(jia)体系(xi)包(bao)括有三(san)大要素,即(ji):完整的(de)评(ping)(ping)(ping)价(jia)(jia)(jia)指(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)标(biao)(biao)、合(he)(he)理(li)的(de)指(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)标(biao)(biao)权重赋值、唯一(yi)的(de)评(ping)(ping)(ping)价(jia)(jia)(jia)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)。其中(zhong)评(ping)(ping)(ping)价(jia)(jia)(jia)指(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)标(biao)(biao)是依(yi)据评(ping)(ping)(ping)价(jia)(jia)(jia)体系(xi)预期目(mu)标(biao)(biao)来设计且表征(zheng)评(ping)(ping)(ping)价(jia)(jia)(jia)对象特征(zheng)的(de)指(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)标(biao)(biao)项(xiang)目(mu)集合(he)(he)。而在某一(yi)具体的(de)评(ping)(ping)(ping)价(jia)(jia)(jia)体系(xi)中(zhong),通(tong)常包(bao)含若干(gan)项(xiang)评(ping)(ping)(ping)价(jia)(jia)(jia)指(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)标(biao)(biao),为有效区分各(ge)评(ping)(ping)(ping)价(jia)(jia)(jia)指(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)标(biao)(biao)的(de)相对重要度(du),因(yin)此需给(ji)予各(ge)评(ping)(ping)(ping)价(jia)(jia)(jia)指(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)标(biao)(biao)某一(yi)权重系(xi)数。而评(ping)(ping)(ping)价(jia)(jia)(jia)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)则是衡量评(ping)(ping)(ping)价(jia)(jia)(jia)对象价(jia)(jia)(jia)值含量的(de)参考准(zhun)绳。

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6.结论

1、残疾人单板滑雪运(yun)动(dong)员的运(yun)动(dong)机能(neng)是由各个不

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