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不同康复方法对黑龙江省短道速滑运动员膝关节损伤的研究

日(ri)期:2021年(nian)05月19日(ri) 编(bian)辑:ad201107111759308692 作(zuo)者:s11竞猜平台 点击次数(shu):246
论文价格(ge):150元/篇(pian) 论文编(bian)号:lw202105081421113199 论文字数:27745 所属(shu)栏(lan)目:康复医学论文
论文地区:中国 论文(wen)语种(zhong):中文(wen) 论文(wen)用途:硕士毕业(ye)论文(wen) Master Thesis

本文(wen)是一篇康复(fu)医学论文(wen),本文(wen)的结(jie)论有(you)(you)短道速滑运(yun)动(dong)(dong)员膝关(guan)节(jie)慢性损(sun)伤(shang)多于急性损(sun)伤(shang),膝关(guan)节(jie)发(fa)生损(sun)伤(shang)时,膝关(guan)节(jie)疼痛(tong)得分明显提高,其他(ta)各(ge)项(xiang)指标明显有(you)(you)所下降,不同程度地影响(xiang)了运(yun)动(dong)(dong)员正常训练和生活(huo)。


1.前言


1.1 选题(ti)依据

20 世纪(ji) 80 年代(dai),短(duan)(duan)道速滑(hua)项目(mu)被(bei)引(yin)入中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)。经过近四(si)十年的探索和发展,短(duan)(duan)道速滑(hua)已经成(cheng)为中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)冬(dong)季体育(yu)一(yi)(yi)张亮(liang)眼(yan)的名片。黑(hei)龙(long)江省作(zuo)为我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)冰雪运动(dong)大省、强省,长期以来培养了一(yi)(yi)批又一(yi)(yi)批优秀冰雪项目(mu)运动(dong)员(yuan),在国(guo)(guo)际赛(sai)场上为我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)、我(wo)(wo)省争金(jin)夺银。在中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)冬(dong)奥代(dai)表(biao)团所获奖牌中(zhong)(zhong),黑(hei)龙(long)江省运动(dong)员(yuan)勇夺 9 金(jin)、15 银、12 铜,占(zhan)中(zhong)(zhong)国(guo)(guo)代(dai)表(biao)团金(jin)、银、铜牌的比例分别(bie)为 69.23%、53.57%、57.14%。其中(zhong)(zhong),我(wo)(wo)省短(duan)(duan)道速滑(hua)运动(dong)员(yuan)贡献了 6 金(jin)、8 银、2 铜,是(shi)历届冬(dong)奥会获得金(jin)牌数最多(duo)的项目(mu)。

黑龙(long)江(jiang)(jiang)省短(duan)(duan)道(dao)速(su)(su)(su)滑(hua)队于 1986 年(nian)(nian)在(zai)(zai)体工二队(现黑龙(long)江(jiang)(jiang)省冰上(shang)训练(lian)中(zhong)(zhong)心)成(cheng)立(li)(li),1988 年(nian)(nian)步入(ru)正轨,同年(nian)(nian)王滨生获得全(quan)国少年(nian)(nian)锦标(biao)赛冠军,李(li)伟获得全(quan)国短(duan)(duan)道(dao)锦标(biao)赛 500 米第三名。1989 年(nian)(nian),省短(duan)(duan)道(dao)速(su)(su)(su)滑(hua)队解散(san)。1990 年(nian)(nian)至 1994 年(nian)(nian),黑龙(long)江(jiang)(jiang)省短(duan)(duan)道(dao)速(su)(su)(su)滑(hua)主要以集(ji)训队的形式存在(zai)(zai)。1994 年(nian)(nian),中(zhong)(zhong)华人民共(gong)和国第七届(jie)运动会(hui)短(duan)(duan)道(dao)比赛结(jie)束(shu)后,我(wo)省总结(jie)七运会(hui)周期(qi)的经验教训,认识(shi)到(dao)必须要充分(fen)利用省队的场地、器(qi)材、人员(yuan)等(deng)(deng)优势(shi),发挥拳(quan)头作用,决定恢复成(cheng)立(li)(li)省短(duan)(duan)道(dao)队。1996年(nian)(nian)至 2000 年(nian)(nian),培(pei)养(yang)出杨扬、张洪波、王雪峰、马延(yan)君、于劲楠、李(li)炳哲、付天余等(deng)(deng)多名优秀运动员(yuan)。这充分(fen)说明(ming),我(wo)省短(duan)(duan)道(dao)速(su)(su)(su)滑(hua)队是我(wo)国短(duan)(duan)道(dao)速(su)(su)(su)滑(hua)项目(mu)重点(dian)运动员(yuan)输送地,是中(zhong)(zhong)国冬(dong)季项目(mu)在(zai)(zai)国际赛场上(shang)争金夺银的绝对主力军。

随着(zhe) 2022 年北京(jing)冬(dong)(dong)奥(ao)(ao)会(hui)(hui)申(shen)办(ban)成(cheng)(cheng)功,习近平总书(shu)记多次就备战(zhan)北京(jing)冬(dong)(dong)奥(ao)(ao)会(hui)(hui)做出(chu)指(zhi)示(shi)及批(pi)示(shi),提出(chu)了“全面参赛、精(jing)彩办(ban)赛、干净参赛”的(de)目(mu)标要求,为全面贯彻落实总书(shu)记指(zhi)示(shi)批(pi)示(shi)精(jing)神,切实做好北京(jing)冬(dong)(dong)奥(ao)(ao)会(hui)(hui)备战(zhan)工(gong)作,国(guo)(guo)家提出(chu)了备战(zhan)冬(dong)(dong)奥(ao)(ao)会(hui)(hui)“2018 扩(kuo)面、2019 固点、2020 精(jing)兵、2021 冲刺”的(de)战(zhan)略部署。短(duan)道速(su)(su)滑项目(mu)作为中国(guo)(guo)冬(dong)(dong)奥(ao)(ao)代表(biao)团(tuan)中的(de)金牌大户和(he)冰(bing)雪运动(dong)传统(tong)优(you)势项目(mu),愈(yu)发得到重视。黑(hei)龙江省(sheng)短(duan)道速(su)(su)滑队(dui)作为省(sheng)级专(zhuan)业队(dui),坚持“三从一大+科学化训(xun)(xun)练(lian)(lian)(lian)”方(fang)(fang)针,通(tong)过“走出(chu)去(qu)、请进来(lai)”的(de)方(fang)(fang)式(shi),积极借(jie)鉴(jian)国(guo)(guo)际、国(guo)(guo)内先(xian)进的(de)训(xun)(xun)练(lian)(lian)(lian)管理(li)模式(shi),优(you)化项目(mu)设置(zhi),积极开展跨界跨项选材,逐(zhu)步形成(cheng)(cheng)并完(wan)善了以冰(bing)陆(lu)训(xun)(xun)练(lian)(lian)(lian)、体(ti)(ti)能(neng)训(xun)(xun)练(lian)(lian)(lian)、康(kang)(kang)复治(zhi)(zhi)疗(liao)、营养膳食、心理(li)咨询等方(fang)(fang)面为主体(ti)(ti),多因(yin)素相辅相成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)训(xun)(xun)练(lian)(lian)(lian)备战(zhan)体(ti)(ti)系及复合(he)型(xing)团(tuan)队(dui)。与(yu)我国(guo)(guo)其他省(sheng)市相比较,在(zai)训(xun)(xun)练(lian)(lian)(lian)、科研、医(yi)务保障(zhang)等方(fang)(fang)面,黑(hei)龙江省(sheng)短(duan)道速(su)(su)滑队(dui)均处于领先(xian)地(di)(di)位。特(te)别是在(zai)康(kang)(kang)复治(zhi)(zhi)疗(liao)方(fang)(fang)面,黑(hei)龙江省(sheng)短(duan)道速(su)(su)滑队(dui)配备 2 名工(gong)作 10 年以上的(de)随队(dui)医(yi)生,并着(zhe)力保持随队(dui)医(yi)生的(de)稳定性,以便全面了解(jie)、持续跟踪(zong)、有效(xiao)解(jie)决运动(dong)员易发损伤及日常训(xun)(xun)练(lian)(lian)(lian)的(de)康(kang)(kang)复和(he)治(zhi)(zhi)疗(liao),较好地(di)(di)保证了运动(dong)员参训(xun)(xun)、参赛的(de)身体(ti)(ti)条件。

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1.2 研究(jiu)目(mu)的与意义

1.2.1 研究目的

本(ben)研究旨在通过对短道(dao)速(su)滑(hua)运动员膝关(guan)节(jie)损(sun)伤特点(dian)的(de)(de)分析,探讨因(yin)(yin)项目因(yin)(yin)素引(yin)起(qi)的(de)(de)髌尖末端病、半(ban)月(yue)板损(sun)伤、膝关(guan)节(jie)滑(hua)囊炎的(de)(de)慢性(xing)膝关(guan)节(jie)损(sun)伤治疗,以黑龙江省短道(dao)速(su)滑(hua)运动员膝关(guan)节(jie)慢性(xing)损(sun)伤情况为研究重点(dian),最大(da)限度地(di)保(bao)障(zhang)运动员身体健康,保(bao)证训练的(de)(de)正常开展(zhan),为提高短道(dao)速(su)滑(hua)运动员成绩奠定基础。

1.2.2 研究意(yi)义

膝(xi)关(guan)(guan)节(jie)损(sun)(sun)伤在(zai)短(duan)道速滑中是常(chang)见疾病,近(jin)年来(lai)多(duo)项(xiang)调查表(biao)明,短(duan)道速滑运动员(yuan)长(zhang)年累月的(de)训练(lian)(lian)和(he)比(bi)赛,在(zai)疲劳后更易出现错(cuo)误的(de)技(ji)术动作,从而加速膝(xi)关(guan)(guan)节(jie)慢性运动损(sun)(sun)伤的(de)发展。由(you)于(yu)慢性膝(xi)关(guan)(guan)节(jie)损(sun)(sun)伤的(de)病期较长(zhang),且不易治愈,长(zhang)期困(kun)扰(rao)着运动员(yuan)的(de)训练(lian)(lian)和(he)生活,限(xian)制(zhi)了(le)运动员(yuan)的(de)运动寿命。本研究(jiu)致力于(yu)为探(tan)讨短(duan)道速滑项(xiang)目(mu)慢性膝(xi)关(guan)(guan)节(jie)损(sun)(sun)伤的(de)治疗(liao)方法寻(xun)找依(yi)据,也为慢性膝(xi)关(guan)(guan)节(jie)损(sun)(sun)伤的(de)康(kang)复(fu)治疗(liao)做(zuo)出一些有益的(de)探(tan)索。

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2.文献综述


2.1 运动(dong)(dong)损伤产生的原因及运动(dong)(dong)损伤研究现(xian)状

运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)损(sun)(sun)(sun)(sun)伤(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)含义是指人(ren)们在进行体(ti)育运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)过程(cheng)中(zhong),发(fa)(fa)生(sheng)(sheng)与(yu)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)项目相(xiang)关的(de)(de)损(sun)(sun)(sun)(sun)伤(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)和(he)伤(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)害(hai)。这种损(sun)(sun)(sun)(sun)伤(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)和(he)伤(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)害(hai)与(yu)所从事(shi)的(de)(de)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)项目相(xiang)关,并(bing)具(ju)有(you)(you)一(yi)定的(de)(de)技(ji)术特(te)性(xing),体(ti)育运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)中(zhong)导致的(de)(de)损(sun)(sun)(sun)(sun)伤(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)与(yu)伤(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)害(hai)常与(yu)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)本身特(te)点(技(ji)术、战(zhan)术动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)作(zuo))、运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)主(zhu)体(ti)行为(wei)(训练水平)、客观条件(运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)环境、器材(cai)设备(bei))等(deng)(deng)因(yin)(yin)素有(you)(you)着(zhe)直(zhi)接或间接的(de)(de)关系。随(sui)着(zhe)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)医(yi)(yi)(yi)学(xue)的(de)(de)发(fa)(fa)展,全面掌(zhang)握并(bing)了解运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)时(shi)可能发(fa)(fa)生(sheng)(sheng)的(de)(de)身体(ti)伤(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)害(hai),对(dui)预防运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)损(sun)(sun)(sun)(sun)伤(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)具(ju)有(you)(you)重(zhong)要意义。运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)损(sun)(sun)(sun)(sun)伤(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)作(zuo)为(wei)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)医(yi)(yi)(yi)学(xue)临床工(gong)作(zuo)和(he)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)医(yi)(yi)(yi)学(xue)学(xue)科的(de)(de)重(zhong)要组成(cheng)部分,对(dui)丰富运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)医(yi)(yi)(yi)学(xue)理论和(he)实践均(jun)具(ju)有(you)(you)重(zhong)要价值。诱发(fa)(fa)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)员产生(sheng)(sheng)各类运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)损(sun)(sun)(sun)(sun)伤(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)原因(yin)(yin)有(you)(you):身体(ti)状态不(bu)佳(jia)、技(ji)术动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)作(zuo)不(bu)标准、运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)员自我保护能力不(bu)足、运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)前准备(bei)活动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)不(bu)充(chong)分以(yi)及(ji)训练、参赛组织不(bu)适当(dang)等(deng)(deng)因(yin)(yin)素。而太快地(di)增加运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)强度(du),并(bing)且在运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)过程(cheng)中(zhong)某一(yi)部位疼痛加剧(ju),没有(you)(you)立即停止运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)也(ye)会对(dui)身体(ti)造(zao)成(cheng)伤(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)害(hai)。运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)损(sun)(sun)(sun)(sun)伤(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)类型较多,如以(yi)受伤(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)情况或症状病史来区分,可分为(wei)急(ji)性(xing)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)损(sun)(sun)(sun)(sun)伤(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)和(he)慢性(xing)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)伤(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)害(hai)两种。在运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)中(zhong),急(ji)性(xing)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)损(sun)(sun)(sun)(sun)伤(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)发(fa)(fa)生(sheng)(sheng)概率大于慢性(xing)损(sun)(sun)(sun)(sun)伤(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang),但如果发(fa)(fa)生(sheng)(sheng)急(ji)性(xing)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)损(sun)(sun)(sun)(sun)伤(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)时(shi),采取的(de)(de)治疗方式不(bu)当(dang),或出现治疗时(shi)机贻误、未得(de)到充(chong)分恢复就进行训练等(deng)(deng)问(wen)题,急(ji)性(xing)损(sun)(sun)(sun)(sun)伤(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)则会转(zhuan)变为(wei)慢性(xing)损(sun)(sun)(sun)(sun)伤(shang)(shang)(shang)(shang)。

在外文(wen)文(wen)献中(zhong)一般的(de)(de)(de)家庭保健(jian)(jian)医生和其他(ta)运(yun)动(dong)(dong)健(jian)(jian)身(shen)指(zhi)导者指(zhi)出(chu),过度的(de)(de)(de)体(ti)育活动(dong)(dong)可能(neng)使(shi)膝关节(jie)(jie)承受到重压,会出(chu)现与膝关节(jie)(jie)有(you)(you)关的(de)(de)(de)各类疾病,从而增加了(le)急性(xing)损伤(shang)(shang)(shang)和慢性(xing)过度使(shi)用伤(shang)(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)(de)风险。这些症状影(ying)响了(le)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)轻运(yun)动(dong)(dong)员的(de)(de)(de)整个职业生涯。目前,随着专(zhuan)业训练少(shao)(shao)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)化(hua),处于(yu)少(shao)(shao)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)儿(er)童年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)龄(ling)的(de)(de)(de)运(yun)动(dong)(dong)员比其他(ta)青(qing)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)和成(cheng)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)运(yun)动(dong)(dong)员的(de)(de)(de)身(shen)体(ti)都承受了(le)更多(duo)的(de)(de)(de)挑战[3]。在美(mei)国(guo)每年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)有(you)(you)超过 2500 万学生参(can)(can)加高(gao)中(zhong)日常(chang)运(yun)动(dong)(dong),近(jin) 3000 万儿(er)童进行有(you)(you)组织的(de)(de)(de)运(yun)动(dong)(dong)活动(dong)(dong)。据(ju)统(tong)计,青(qing)少(shao)(shao)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)由(you)于(yu)过度训练或在一个赛(sai)季中(zhong)参(can)(can)加多(duo)项运(yun)动(dong)(dong)而出(chu)现过度使(shi)用综合征和非创伤(shang)(shang)(shang)性(xing)伤(shang)(shang)(shang)害,美(mei)国(guo)每年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)有(you)(you)250 万青(qing)少(shao)(shao)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)因运(yun)动(dong)(dong)造成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)损伤(shang)(shang)(shang)去急诊室就诊。在青(qing)年(nian)(nian)(nian)(nian)群(qun)体(ti)中(zhong),膝关节(jie)(jie)一直是肌肉骨骼损伤(shang)(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)(de)最常(chang)见部位,占受伤(shang)(shang)(shang)总数(shu)的(de)(de)(de) 20%至 36%。

表 2 三组运动员治疗前基本情况比较

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2.2 冰上项目(mu)运动损伤研究

鲁家(jia)琪、杨立(li)秋在对运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)员运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)损(sun)伤(shang)调查(cha)时(shi)发(fa)(fa)现(xian)有(you)(you) 55.2%的(de)(de)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)员是在训(xun)练时(shi)受(shou)伤(shang),36.8%的(de)(de)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)员是在比(bi)赛过程中受(shou)伤(shang),有(you)(you) 21%的(de)(de)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)员在比(bi)赛和(he)训(xun)练中受(shou)伤(shang)[6]。冰雪项(xiang)目(mu)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)员膝关节、踝关节运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)损(sun)伤(shang)发(fa)(fa)生率高也(ye)主(zhu)要与结构(gou)有(you)(you)关,由于膝关节、踝关节部位基本上都是关节和(he)韧(ren)带软(ruan)骨(gu)组织等,血(xue)管和(he)肌肉较少,相对容易产生疲(pi)劳,训(xun)练后恢复的(de)(de)也(ye)较慢,因此容易发(fa)(fa)生运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)损(sun)伤(shang)[7]。此外,研(yan)究发(fa)(fa)现(xian)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)员的(de)(de)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)损(sun)伤(shang)与项(xiang)目(mu)特(te)点和(he)特(te)殊的(de)(de)技术动(dong)(dong)(dong)作有(you)(you)关。

魏亚茹研(yan)究认为冰上(shang)(shang)(shang)项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)运(yun)动(dong)员(yuan)(yuan)运(yun)动(dong)损(sun)伤(shang)(shang)主要(yao)发(fa)(fa)(fa)生(sheng)于(yu)运(yun)动(dong)训(xun)(xun)(xun)练(lian)和(he)比赛(sai)过程中[8]。由于(yu)运(yun)动(dong)员(yuan)(yuan)长期(qi)在(zai)(zai)冰上(shang)(shang)(shang)运(yun)动(dong),环境(jing)(jing)温度较(jiao)低(di),训(xun)(xun)(xun)练(lian)、比赛(sai)时间较(jiao)长,对抗激烈(lie),技、战(zhan)术要(yao)求(qiu)复(fu)(fu)杂(za),再加(jia)上(shang)(shang)(shang)各种(zhong)内(nei)、外(wai)(wai)部(bu)因素的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)影响(xiang),导致冰上(shang)(shang)(shang)项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)运(yun)动(dong)损(sun)伤(shang)(shang)发(fa)(fa)(fa)生(sheng)率较(jiao)高,具有(you)(you)重复(fu)(fu)性和(he)多发(fa)(fa)(fa)性的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)特点。在(zai)(zai)训(xun)(xun)(xun)练(lian)和(he)比赛(sai)时,运(yun)动(dong)员(yuan)(yuan)身(shen)(shen)(shen)体常处于(yu)低(di)温环境(jing)(jing)状态下,肌(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)肉(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)僵化的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)速度相对较(jiao)快,在(zai)(zai)这(zhei)种(zhong)情况下,当(dang)肌(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)肉(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)做主动(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)猛烈(lie)收缩,或(huo)(huo)(huo)肌(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)肉(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)用(yong)力牵伸(shen)时,其(qi)(qi)力量(liang)超(chao)出(chu)了(le)肌(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)肉(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)本(ben)(ben)身(shen)(shen)(shen)所(suo)(suo)能(neng)承担(dan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)能(neng)力或(huo)(huo)(huo)超(chao)过了(le)肌(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)肉(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)本(ben)(ben)身(shen)(shen)(shen)特有(you)(you)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)伸(shen)展程度,从而容易(yi)造(zao)(zao)成(cheng)肌(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)肉(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)拉(la)伤(shang)(shang)。冰上(shang)(shang)(shang)项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)运(yun)动(dong)员(yuan)(yuan)发(fa)(fa)(fa)生(sheng)运(yun)动(dong)损(sun)伤(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)部(bu)位以(yi)腰(yao)背部(bu)、膝关节(jie)和(he)踝(huai)关节(jie)为主。冰上(shang)(shang)(shang)项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)临场变(bian)化复(fu)(fu)杂(za),运(yun)动(dong)内(nei)容较(jiao)多,技、战(zhan)术复(fu)(fu)杂(za)多变(bian),难度较(jiao)大(da)(da),比赛(sai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)遇性、偶然性较(jiao)大(da)(da)。尤其(qi)(qi)是短道(dao)速滑运(yun)动(dong)员(yuan)(yuan)除(chu)身(shen)(shen)(shen)体自身(shen)(shen)(shen)素质和(he)技术不过硬等原因造(zao)(zao)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)运(yun)动(dong)损(sun)伤(shang)(shang)外(wai)(wai),在(zai)(zai)进、出(chu)弯道(dao)时的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)惯性作(zuo)用(yong)、犯规或(huo)(huo)(huo)他人的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)干扰等发(fa)(fa)(fa)生(sheng)冲撞(zhuang)时,身(shen)(shen)(shen)体极易(yi)失去(qu)平衡而导致运(yun)动(dong)损(sun)伤(shang)(shang)也(ye)时有(you)(you)发(fa)(fa)(fa)生(sheng)[9]。这(zhei)些特点迫使冰上(shang)(shang)(shang)项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)运(yun)动(dong)员(yuan)(yuan)常年进行单一的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)训(xun)(xun)(xun)练(lian)且专项(xiang)(xiang)动(dong)作(zuo)训(xun)(xun)(xun)练(lian)较(jiao)多,专项(xiang)(xiang)动(dong)作(zuo)大(da)(da)多集中在(zai)(zai)腰(yao)背部(bu)、膝关节(jie)和(he)踝(huai)关节(jie)处,当(dang)这(zhei)些部(bu)位的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)运(yun)动(dong)负荷超(chao)过了(le)其(qi)(qi)本(ben)(ben)身(shen)(shen)(shen)所(suo)(suo)能(neng)承受的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)范(fan)围,运(yun)动(dong)损(sun)伤(shang)(shang)往往发(fa)(fa)(fa)生(sheng)。运(yun)动(dong)损(sun)伤(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)类型主要(yao)是肌(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)肉(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)伤(shang)(shang)、关节(jie)伤(shang)(shang)和(he)韧(ren)带(dai)伤(shang)(shang)。当(dang)肌(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)肉(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)组织的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)力量(liang)素质较(jiao)弱或(huo)(huo)(huo)韧(ren)带(dai)伸(shen)展性、弹性较(jiao)差(cha)时,肌(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)肉(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)受力牵伸(shen)超(chao)过了(le)肌(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)肉(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)所(suo)(suo)能(neng)伸(shen)展的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)限度或(huo)(huo)(huo)肌(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)肉(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)组织承担(dan)超(chao)负荷力量(liang)时,极易(yi)引起拉(la)伤(shang)(shang)或(huo)(huo)(huo)撕裂。膝关节(jie)和(he)踝(huai)关节(jie)容易(yi)受伤(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)原因与生(sheng)理机(ji)制和(he)功能(neng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)不稳(wen)定性有(you)(you)关,由于(yu)这(zhei)两个部(bu)位基本(ben)(ben)上(shang)(shang)(shang)是关节(jie)和(he)韧(ren)带(dai)软骨(gu)组织等,血管(guan)和(he)肌(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)肉(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)较(jiao)少,相对容易(yi)产生(sheng)疲劳,训(xun)(xun)(xun)练(lian)后(hou)恢复(fu)(fu)也(ye)较(jiao)慢,常年训(xun)(xun)(xun)练(lian)破坏了(le)这(zhei)些部(bu)位协调发(fa)(fa)(fa)展和(he)力量(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)比例(li)关系,造(zao)(zao)成(cheng)踝(huai)、膝关节(jie)损(sun)伤(shang)(shang)[10]。

表 1 年龄数据正态性检验

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3.研究对象与(yu)方(fang)法...................................19

3.1 研究(jiu)对象.................................19

3.1.1 纳入标(biao)准..............................19

3.1.2 排除标准............................19

4.结(jie)果........................26

4.1 三种康复方法对实验对象(xiang)各(ge)项指标的(de)影响..................26

4.1.1 三种康复方(fang)法对实验对象疼痛行为测(ce)试的评定.............................26

4.1.2 三种康(kang)复方法对(dui)实验对(dui)象 Lysholm 评分量表的评定(ding)..............................26

5.分析与(yu)讨论(lun).........................33

5.1 康(kang)复(fu)训练对短道速滑运动员(yuan)膝关节损伤的作(zuo)用...........................33

5.1.1 靠墙(qiang)静蹲练习康复训练的作用特(te)点(dian)................33

5.1.2 伸膝(xi)抗阻康复训练的作用特点(dian)...........................33


5.分析与讨论


5.1 康(kang)复训练对短道速(su)滑运(yun)动员(yuan)膝关节(jie)慢性(xing)损(sun)伤的(de)作用

短道速滑运动(dong)员膝(xi)关节慢性损伤不(bu)同于其他(ta)膝(xi)关节损伤,主要是由于基础技术动(dong)作(zuo)和长(zhang)期(qi)运动(dong)疲劳的(de)积累,导致膝(xi)关节局部遭到长(zhang)期(qi)反复(fu)磨损

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