日期:2020年(nian)02月24日 编辑:ad200904242025371901 作者:s11竞猜平台 点击次数:2691
论文价格:免费 论文编号(hao):lw202002220308558025 论文(wen)字数:2654 所属栏目:essay写作
论文地(di)区:其他 论文语种:中文 论(lun)(lun)文用途:论(lun)(lun)文写作指导 Instruction







  in this argument, the arguer concludes that…

  to substantiate the conclusion, the arguer points out that…

  in addition, the arguer assumes that / reasons that / cites the example of / cites the result of a recent study that…

  a careful examination of this argument would reveal how groundless it is.



first of all, the argument is based on a false analogy. / the arguer simply assumes that… but he does not provide any evidence that … are indeed comparable. / as we know, … differ conspicuously. / it is true that both… but even here exist fundamental differences:… / therefore, even though…proved effective in doing… there is no guarantee that it will work just as well for…// as a result, a and b do not establish a warranted analogy. so we cannot safely assume that (两者无法(fa)比(bi))

  ** the author unfairly assumes that a bears some relation to b. / however, the author provides no evidence to support that this is the case, nor does the author establish a causal relationship between a and b. / it is highly possible that other factors might contribute to the b/change/progress. / for example, … it is also likely b just resulted from … / lacking evidence that links a to b, it is presumptuous to suggest that a was responsible for b. (无法建立必(bi)然(ran)的(de)因果关(guan)系(xi))

  ** the evidence the author provides is insufficient to support the conclusion drawn from it. / one example is rarely sufficient to establish a general conclusion. / based on a specific example of… , it is logically unsounded to make suggestion for all… / in fact, in face of such limited evidence, it is fallacious to draw any conclusion at all. / unless it can be shown that … is representative of all…, the conclusion that… is completely unwarranted. (单个事例不(bu)能说(shuo)明整(zheng)体问题)

  ** by concluding that sb must do a or must do b, the author commits a fallacy of “false dilemma”. / the author assumes that a and b are the only available solutions to the problem. / however, it is possible that other factors might also contribute to the problem. for example,… / if so, just doing a and b would not solve the problem. (还(hai)有(you)其(qi)他原因)

  in addition, the arguer commits a fallacy of hasty generalization. / even if… , which is, of course, an unwarranted assumption, it does not follow that… / it is highly possible that other factors may have contributed to b… / for instance,… / besides, the arguer does not provide any solid information concerning… / unless… , which is unknown from this argument, there is no guarantee that… // without ruling out these and other possible factors that give rise to b, the author cannot confidently conclude that…(结论得出(chu)过早(zao),考虑不(bu)周(zhou)到 )

  ** the arguer assumes that just because one event follows another, the second event has been caused by the first. / however, no evidence is provided to support that this is the case. / the mere fact that a occurs before b does not necessarily establish a causal relationship between a and b. / it is highly possible that other factors might also bring about these same results. / for instance,… in addition,… / without ruling out these and other possible factors that give rise to b, the author cannot confidently conclude that…

  ** the recommendation depends on the assumption that no alternative means of doing sth are available. / however, the arguer fails to offer any evidence to substantiate this crucial assumption. it is highly possible that means other than this would better solve the problem. / without considering and ruling out these and other alternative means of doing sth, the author cannot conf

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