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站城一体化发展模式下停车换乘系统的公共停车空间设计研究

日期:2021年(nian)05月09日 编辑(ji):ad201107111759308692 作者(zhe):s11竞猜平台 点(dian)击次数:276
论文价(jia)格:150元/篇(pian) 论文编号:lw202104281016412148 论文字(zi)数(shu):51255 所属栏目:建筑学论文
论(lun)文(wen)地(di)区:中国 论文语种:中文 论(lun)文用途:硕士毕(bi)业论(lun)文 Master Thesis

本文是一(yi)(yi)(yi)篇建筑学(xue)论(lun)(lun)文,本文对国内外研究(jiu)现状(zhuang)、站城(cheng)一(yi)(yi)(yi)体化发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)模式、停(ting)(ting)车(che)(che)换(huan)(huan)乘(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)系统(tong)(tong)(tong)及停(ting)(ting)车(che)(che)换(huan)(huan)乘(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)系统(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)公(gong)共(gong)停(ting)(ting)车(che)(che)空(kong)(kong)间(jian)进(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)了(le)理(li)论(lun)(lun)概述,通(tong)过(guo)(guo)对北(bei)京地(di)区停(ting)(ting)车(che)(che)换(huan)(huan)乘(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)系统(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)公(gong)共(gong)停(ting)(ting)车(che)(che)空(kong)(kong)间(jian)进(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)调研研究(jiu),针(zhen)对其现阶段(duan)发(fa)(fa)展(zhan)(zhan)存在的(de)(de)(de)问题进(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)分(fen)析总结(jie),进(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)而提出相关的(de)(de)(de)设计原(yuan)则(ze)及目标策(ce)略,通(tong)过(guo)(guo)对西二(er)旗地(di)铁站停(ting)(ting)车(che)(che)换(huan)(huan)乘(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)系统(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)公(gong)共(gong)停(ting)(ting)车(che)(che)空(kong)(kong)间(jian)进(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)设计研究(jiu),在实(shi)证性层面(mian)对结(jie)论(lun)(lun)的(de)(de)(de)合理(li)性与可行(xing)(xing)(xing)性进(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)验证,希(xi)望以此(ci)对停(ting)(ting)车(che)(che)换(huan)(huan)乘(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)系统(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)公(gong)共(gong)停(ting)(ting)车(che)(che)空(kong)(kong)间(jian)的(de)(de)(de)理(li)论(lun)(lun)体系进(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)一(yi)(yi)(yi)定的(de)(de)(de)补充。此(ci)外,还希(xi)望能(neng)够引起相关科研机构的(de)(de)(de)重视,使得停(ting)(ting)车(che)(che)换(huan)(huan)乘(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)系统(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)公(gong)共(gong)停(ting)(ting)车(che)(che)空(kong)(kong)间(jian)设计有相应的(de)(de)(de)指(zhi)导细则(ze),进(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)(jin)而完(wan)善(shan)我国停(ting)(ting)车(che)(che)换(huan)(huan)乘(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)系统(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)系统(tong)(tong)(tong)性,提高换(huan)(huan)乘(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)效率(lv),打(da)造优质(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)绿色低(di)碳出行(xing)(xing)(xing)。


第 1 章 绪论


1.1 研究(jiu)课题提出

1.1.1 研究(jiu)背(bei)景

随着我(wo)国(guo)经(jing)济的(de)(de)快速(su)(su)(su)发(fa)展,城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)发(fa)展规模也(ye)(ye)随之(zhi)也(ye)(ye)不断扩大,高速(su)(su)(su)的(de)(de)城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)化(hua)(hua)带给了城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)前所(suo)未(wei)有的(de)(de)机(ji)遇,同时(shi)也(ye)(ye)带来一系列城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)问题。与(yu)此同时(shi),中(zhong)国(guo)的(de)(de)大城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)也(ye)(ye)相继进入了小汽(qi)车(che)(che)为(wei)导向(xiang)的(de)(de)郊区(qu)(qu)化(hua)(hua)过程。从(cong)公(gong)安(an)部(bu)获悉(xi),截止到 2019 年 6 月的(de)(de)数据统计表明,全国(guo)机(ji)动车(che)(che)保有量(liang)达(da) 3.4 亿(yi)辆(liang),其中(zhong)汽(qi)车(che)(che)保有量(liang)为(wei) 2.5 亿(yi)辆(liang),其中(zhong)私家车(che)(che)达(da) 1.98 亿(yi)辆(liang),占机(ji)动车(che)(che)总量(liang)的(de)(de) 58.24%。全国(guo)有 66 个(ge)城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)汽(qi)车(che)(che)保有量(liang)超过 100 万辆(liang),其中(zhong)有北京(jing)、成都(dou)等 11 个(ge)城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)超过 300 万辆(liang)1,北京(jing)地区(qu)(qu)的(de)(de)汽(qi)车(che)(che)保有量(liang)更是名列前茅(mao)。在小汽(qi)车(che)(che)数量(liang)的(de)(de)迅猛增长(zhang)的(de)(de)同时(shi),北京(jing)的(de)(de)交(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)量(liang)也(ye)(ye)随之(zhi)快速(su)(su)(su)增长(zhang),城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)路网的(de)(de)建设速(su)(su)(su)度已(yi)(yi)经(jing)无法满足城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)居民(min)对交(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)需求(qiu)程度,由此带来了严重的(de)(de)道路紧张、交(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)拥挤等问题。由于停(ting)车(che)(che)设施(shi)的(de)(de)建设缓慢及对停(ting)车(che)(che)设施(shi)管理的(de)(de)严重滞后2,使其已(yi)(yi)经(jing)跟不上城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)更新过程中(zhong)的(de)(de)需求(qiu),进而(er)加重了城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)动态交(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)压力(li)。

除了道(dao)(dao)路紧张和交(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)(tong)拥堵(du)的(de)(de)(de)因素外,还(hai)存(cun)在(zai)(zai)着一系列环境问(wen)题(ti)(ti)。人(ren)民生活质量(liang)和身(shen)心(xin)健康(kang)由于(yu)机动(dong)车(che)(che)带来的(de)(de)(de)噪音、尾气污染等(deng)问(wen)题(ti)(ti)使其受(shou)到(dao)了严(yan)重(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)影响(xiang)。纵观我国(guo)公(gong)交(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)车(che)(che)辆(liang)的(de)(de)(de)运(yun)(yun)行(xing)速度(du)及(ji)运(yun)(yun)输方(fang)式(shi),存(cun)在(zai)(zai)着重(zhong)复线路多、准点性(xing)差(cha)等(deng)问(wen)题(ti)(ti),客(ke)流运(yun)(yun)输在(zai)(zai)质和量(liang)上(shang)延(yan)误过(guo)大(da)的(de)(de)(de)现(xian)(xian)象(xiang)依然普遍存(cun)在(zai)(zai)。因此,相比公(gong)交(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)运(yun)(yun)输,轨(gui)道(dao)(dao)交(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)(tong)体现(xian)(xian)出(chu)了明显(xian)的(de)(de)(de)优势(shi)。轨(gui)道(dao)(dao)交(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)(tong)作为城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)基础(chu)设(she)施之一,具有以(yi)下几种优点:载(zai)(zai)(zai)客(ke)容量(liang)大(da)、车(che)(che)辆(liang)速度(du)快、安(an)全系数高(gao)、准时(shi)性(xing)强以(yi)及(ji)绿(lv)色环保等(deng);且该(gai)交(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)(tong)模式(shi)的(de)(de)(de)推(tui)行(xing)建设(she)能有效缓解(jie)机动(dong)车(che)(che)给城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)带来的(de)(de)(de)交(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)(tong)压(ya)力的(de)(de)(de)同时(shi)推(tui)动(dong)城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)郊区(qu)发展,对(dui)改善城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)环境方(fang)面(mian)也起到(dao)巨大(da)的(de)(de)(de)作用。在(zai)(zai)轨(gui)道(dao)(dao)交(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)(tong)站点附(fu)近建立私人(ren)交(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)(tong)与公(gong)共交(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)(tong)相互转(zhuan)换的(de)(de)(de)设(she)施就是基于(yu)这样的(de)(de)(de)背景(jing)及(ji)优点下发展起来的(de)(de)(de)。通(tong)(tong)(tong)过(guo)搭建停车(che)(che)换乘系统,促进低载(zai)(zai)(zai)客(ke)量(liang)交(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)(tong)方(fang)式(shi)向高(gao)载(zai)(zai)(zai)客(ke)量(liang)交(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)(tong)方(fang)式(shi)转(zhuan)换,进而(er)缓解(jie)城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)中心(xin)区(qu)拥堵(du)、不(bu)便、高(gao)成本等(deng)城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)压(ya)力。

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1.2 相(xiang)关(guan)基本概念

①站(zhan)城一体化发展模式(shi)

随着城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)轨(gui)道交(jiao)通(tong)(tong)的(de)发(fa)展(zhan),城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)结构由以城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)中(zhong)心为主导的(de)城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)形态结构向“城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)中(zhong)心——城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)郊区(qu)”这一(yi)城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)形态结构转化,形成城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)和(he)轨(gui)道交(jiao)通(tong)(tong)共同发(fa)展(zhan)的(de)城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)发(fa)展(zhan)模式,这种模式叫站城(cheng)(cheng)一(yi)体化发(fa)展(zhan)模式。

②停(ting)车(che)换(huan)乘系统(tong)

停(ting)(ting)车(che)换(huan)乘(cheng)系统概念指的是在出(chu)行(xing)的过程中由(you)低载(zai)客(ke)量向(xiang)高(gao)载(zai)客(ke)量交通出(chu)行(xing)方(fang)式转换(huan)的停(ting)(ting)车(che)换(huan)乘(cheng)设施4。停(ting)(ting)车(che)换(huan)乘(cheng)系统主要是指在城(cheng)市郊(jiao)区(qu)的轨交站点(dian)设置停(ting)(ting)车(che)场,同时采用(yong)优惠费用(yong)吸引并引导居(ju)民换(huan)乘(cheng)公(gong)共交通工具,达到绿色低碳出(chu)行(xing)的目的。

③轨(gui)交(jiao)站(zhan)域

轨交(jiao)站(zhan)域(图 1-1)是(shi)轨交(jiao)站(zhan)点(dian)与(yu)(yu)城市空(kong)间(jian)融合(he)(he)发展的关键节(jie)点(dian)与(yu)(yu)载体(ti),指轨交(jiao)站(zhan)点(dian)在城市中所(suo)产生实际影(ying)(ying)(ying)响的区域,可根据(ju)步行(xing)半径(jing)、站(zhan)点(dian)规模、道路(lu)(lu)布局、地形形态和开发边界等方式来(lai)确定具体(ti)影(ying)(ying)(ying)响范围。由于步行(xing)合(he)(he)理影(ying)(ying)(ying)响范围对城市影(ying)(ying)(ying)响最为直接(jie),因此将步行(xing)半径(jing)作为界定轨道交(jiao)通(tong)(tong)影(ying)(ying)(ying)响范围的依据(ju)。在国外诸(zhu)多学者的研究成果中,常取 10min 步行(xing)时间(jian)(400-600m 路(lu)(lu)程)作为步行(xing)舒适的范围,20min 步行(xing)时间(jian)(800-1200m 路(lu)(lu)程)作为步行(xing)可接(jie)受(shou)范围。在轨交(jiao)站(zhan)域,这(zhei)个范围同时也是(shi)轨道交(jiao)通(tong)(tong)影(ying)(ying)(ying)响土地开发的最显著地区。

图 1-1 轨交站域范围示意

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第 2 章 相关(guan)基础研究


2.1 站城一体化发展模式相关基础研究

2.1.1 站城一(yi)体化发展模式下轨道交通与城市发展关系

站城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)一(yi)(yi)(yi)体化(hua)(hua)模(mo)式是城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)轨道交(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)与城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)发展(zhan)(zhan)相(xiang)(xiang)结(jie)合(he)(he)(he)而产(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)的(de)(de)(de)一(yi)(yi)(yi)种城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)空(kong)间(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)布置发展(zhan)(zhan)模(mo)式,也是目前亚洲城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)(de)一(yi)(yi)(yi)种主流开发模(mo)式,在城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)中(zhong)表现的(de)(de)(de)特征总结(jie)为以(yi)(yi)下三方面8:①使(shi)(shi)(shi)各城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)活功能(neng)(neng)空(kong)间(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)相(xiang)(xiang)互融合(he)(he)(he),通(tong)过站城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)一(yi)(yi)(yi)体化(hua)(hua)模(mo)式的(de)(de)(de)开发,构建以(yi)(yi)复合(he)(he)(he)化(hua)(hua)建筑功能(neng)(neng)为中(zhong)心的(de)(de)(de)影(ying)响(xiang)区域,促进周围(wei)城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)空(kong)间(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)功能(neng)(neng)的(de)(de)(de)发展(zhan)(zhan),使(shi)(shi)(shi)城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)空(kong)间(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)和建筑空(kong)间(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)发展(zhan)(zhan)相(xiang)(xiang)辅相(xiang)(xiang)成,相(xiang)(xiang)互影(ying)响(xiang);②在城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)活功能(neng)(neng)空(kong)间(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)相(xiang)(xiang)互融合(he)(he)(he)的(de)(de)(de)基础上,使(shi)(shi)(shi)城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)空(kong)间(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)往集约化(hua)(hua)及复合(he)(he)(he)化(hua)(hua)方向发展(zhan)(zhan)。结(jie)合(he)(he)(he)轨道交(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)的(de)(de)(de)发展(zhan)(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)建设,使(shi)(shi)(shi)城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)功能(neng)(neng)空(kong)间(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)重叠串联(lian),进而形(xing)(xing)成集约化(hua)(hua)、复合(he)(he)(he)化(hua)(hua)的(de)(de)(de)城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)空(kong)间(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)网(wang)络。③通(tong)过集约化(hua)(hua)、复合(he)(he)(he)化(hua)(hua)的(de)(de)(de)城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)空(kong)间(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)网(wang)路的(de)(de)(de)形(xing)(xing)成,使(shi)(shi)(shi)得轨道交(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)站点内的(de)(de)(de)交(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)空(kong)间(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)逐渐弱化(hua)(hua),使(shi)(shi)(shi)相(xiang)(xiang)互独立的(de)(de)(de)轨交(jiao)(jiao)枢(shu)纽站空(kong)间(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)和城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)空(kong)间(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)在空(kong)间(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)边界上相(xiang)(xiang)互交(jiao)(jiao)织在一(yi)(yi)(yi)起,形(xing)(xing)成共(gong)同发展(zhan)(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)模(mo)式(如图(tu) 2-4 所示),最终(zhong)形(xing)(xing)成绿(lv)色生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)态低碳发展(zhan)(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)活空(kong)间(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)。以(yi)(yi)站城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)一(yi)(yi)(yi)体化(hua)(hua)模(mo)式为背(bei)景推(tui)动(dong)城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)(de)发展(zhan)(zhan)建设:

一、营造城(cheng)市生活系统

相比以往(wang)轨(gui)交(jiao)(jiao)站(zhan)点(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)建设(she)与(yu)城(cheng)(cheng)市生活系(xi)统之(zhi)间的(de)(de)(de)(de)关系(xi)来说,站(zhan)城(cheng)(cheng)一体化模(mo)式(shi)下(xia)的(de)(de)(de)(de)开发(fa)使(shi)其(qi)之(zhi)间的(de)(de)(de)(de)关系(xi)更加紧密,以往(wang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)轨(gui)交(jiao)(jiao)站(zhan)点(dian)仅(jin)以自(zi)身为中心(xin)丰富城(cheng)(cheng)市交(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)网络,未(wei)过多(duo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)考(kao)虑城(cheng)(cheng)市生活系(xi)统与(yu)轨(gui)交(jiao)(jiao)站(zhan)点(dian)之(zhi)间的(de)(de)(de)(de)联系(xi)性(xing)(xing);而站(zhan)城(cheng)(cheng)一体化模(mo)式(shi)下(xia)的(de)(de)(de)(de)轨(gui)交(jiao)(jiao)站(zhan)点(dian)建设(she)不仅(jin)仅(jin)只考(kao)虑丰富城(cheng)(cheng)市交(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)网络,还考(kao)虑到轨(gui)交(jiao)(jiao)站(zhan)点(dian)内部空间的(de)(de)(de)(de)功(gong)能(neng)与(yu)建设(she),在轨(gui)交(jiao)(jiao)沿线构(gou)成多(duo)中心(xin)辐射的(de)(de)(de)(de)城(cheng)(cheng)市生活系(xi)统,并(bing)与(yu)外部各(ge)类空间连(lian)接整合,建设(she)具有(you)弹(dan)性(xing)(xing)功(gong)能(neng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)城(cheng)(cheng)市生活系(xi)统,使(shi)其(qi)成为城(cheng)(cheng)市生活当(dang)中的(de)(de)(de)(de)一部分,进而减少城(cheng)(cheng)市公共空间浪费。

图 2-1 共同发展模式图

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2.2 停车(che)换乘系统相关基础研究

2.2.1 停车换乘系统形式与功(gong)能演变

停车换(huan)乘系统(tong)是(shi)由一组(zu)交(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)设施组(zu)合而成(cheng)的交(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)出(chu)行系统(tong),通(tong)过将私人交(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)方(fang)(fang)(fang)式与(yu)公共交(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)方(fang)(fang)(fang)式间相互(hu)转换(huan),实(shi)现城市的绿(lv)色低碳可持续的发展。停车换(huan)乘系统(tong)的潜在服务对(dui)象非常广泛,包括以步行、非机动车及机动车、轨道交(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)、列(lie)车甚至(zhi)飞机等交(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)出(chu)行方(fang)(fang)(fang)式的人群(qun)。

最(zui)早出(chu)现的(de)(de)(de)(de)停(ting)(ting)(ting)(ting)车(che)(che)(che)换(huan)(huan)乘(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)设(she)施(shi)在(zai)上世纪三(san)十(shi)(shi)年(nian)代(dai)左右,为了保护古城(cheng)(cheng)遗迹,欧美国(guo)(guo)家(jia)中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)些(xie)大城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)通(tong)(tong)过限制市(shi)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)交(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)量的(de)(de)(de)(de)方式(shi),在(zai)城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)郊区的(de)(de)(de)(de)公(gong)共(gong)交(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)站点附近结合设(she)立(li)停(ting)(ting)(ting)(ting)车(che)(che)(che)场(chang),便于(yu)私家(jia)车(che)(che)(che)用户转乘(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)公(gong)共(gong)交(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)。二十(shi)(shi)世纪六十(shi)(shi)年(nian)代(dai),更多(duo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)英国(guo)(guo)城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi),例如牛津(jin)和莱(lai)斯特,也建(jian)(jian)立(li)了许多(duo)停(ting)(ting)(ting)(ting)车(che)(che)(che)换(huan)(huan)乘(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)设(she)施(shi)。然而(er),停(ting)(ting)(ting)(ting)车(che)(che)(che)换(huan)(huan)乘(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)设(she)施(shi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)建(jian)(jian)设(she)并(bing)没有(you)持续多(duo)久,到了七十(shi)(shi)年(nian)代(dai)初(chu)期,相关领域的(de)(de)(de)(de)建(jian)(jian)设(she)和发展就基本停(ting)(ting)(ting)(ting)滞以(yi)至于(yu)消失殆尽。美国(guo)(guo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)停(ting)(ting)(ting)(ting)车(che)(che)(che)换(huan)(huan)乘(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)设(she)施(shi)建(jian)(jian)设(she)始于(yu) 1955 年(nian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)克利夫兰,在(zai)上世纪 70 年(nian)代(dai)开始大力推(tui)(tui)行(xing)建(jian)(jian)设(she),由于(yu)当(dang)时(shi)石(shi)油价格的(de)(de)(de)(de)上涨(zhang)11,降低(di)了美国(guo)(guo)社(she)会对(dui)小(xiao)汽车(che)(che)(che)的(de)(de)(de)(de)依赖(lai)程(cheng)度,许多(duo)城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)开始推(tui)(tui)行(xing)停(ting)(ting)(ting)(ting)车(che)(che)(che)换(huan)(huan)乘(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)模(mo)式(shi),通(tong)(tong)过促进公(gong)共(gong)交(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)发展,以(yi)此解决(jue)能源消耗(hao)、空气污染以(yi)及机动车(che)(che)(che)带来(lai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)交(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)拥堵等问题(ti)。但(dan)随着(zhe)石(shi)油危机的(de)(de)(de)(de)过去,停(ting)(ting)(ting)(ting)车(che)(che)(che)换(huan)(huan)乘(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)建(jian)(jian)设(she)也陷入(ru)了低(di)潮。亚洲国(guo)(guo)家(jia)的(de)(de)(de)(de)停(ting)(ting)(ting)(ting)车(che)(che)(che)换(huan)(huan)乘(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)搭建(jian)(jian)中(zhong),新加(jia)坡(po)属于(yu)第一(yi)个建(jian)(jian)设(she)该系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)国(guo)(guo)家(jia)11,通(tong)(tong)过在(zai)城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)郊区搭建(jian)(jian)停(ting)(ting)(ting)(ting)车(che)(che)(che)换(huan)(huan)乘(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)停(ting)(ting)(ting)(ting)车(che)(che)(che)场(chang),降低(di)小(xiao)汽车(che)(che)(che)对(dui)城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)路网的(de)(de)(de)(de)压力的(de)(de)(de)(de)同时(shi)吸引汽车(che)(che)(che)使用者换(huan)(huan)乘(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)特快巴士(shi)进入(ru)市(shi)区,达到绿色低(di)碳出(chu)行(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)目的(de)(de)(de)(de)。但(dan)由于(yu)停(ting)(ting)(ting)(ting)车(che)(che)(che)换(huan)(huan)乘(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)停(ting)(ting)(ting)(ting)车(che)(che)(che)场(chang)与公(gong)共(gong)交(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)之间(jian)接驳空间(jian)设(she)计(ji)不当(dang)等原因,仅几个月就宣告(gao)失败(bai)。

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第 3 章(zhang) 北京地(di)区停车换乘系(xi)统(tong)的公(gong)共停车空间现状(zhuang)及问题(ti)分析.............27

3.1 北京地(di)区(qu)停车(che)换乘系(xi)统的公(gong)共停车(che)空(kong)间现状调研..................... 27

3.1.1 调(diao)研对象、调(diao)研方(fang)式(shi)及(ji)调(diao)研的(de)原则 ......................... 27

3.1.2 停(ting)车换乘系统停(ting)车场(chang)分布情况(kuang)整理 .............................. 28

第 4 章 停车换乘(cheng)系统(tong)的公共停车空(kong)间(jian)设计原则及目标策略......... 52

4.1 停(ting)(ting)车换(huan)乘系(xi)统的公共停(ting)(ting)车空间设计原则 .................... 52

4.1.1 规划选址原则 ........................ 52

4.1.2 空间设计原则 ....................... 52

第 5 章 西二(er)旗地铁(tie)站(zhan)停车换(huan)乘系统的公共停车空间优化设计方案..................... 72

5.1 西二旗交通枢纽概况 ....................... 72

5.1.1 区位概况................ 72

5.1.2 西二旗地铁站概况 .................... 72


第 5 章(zhang) 西(xi)二旗地铁站停车换乘系统(tong)的公共(gong)停车空间优化设计(ji)方案


5.1 西二旗(qi)交通枢纽概况

本节主要对北京西(xi)二(er)(er)(er)旗(qi)交(jiao)通(tong)枢纽的基本状况进行阐述,分为西(xi)二(er)(er)(er)旗(qi)地铁(tie)站区位概(gai)况、西(xi)二(er)(er)(er)旗(qi)交(jiao)通(tong)枢纽概(gai)况及(ji)停车(che)换乘停车(che)场概(gai)况。

5.1.1 区位概(gai)况(kuang)

西(xi)二(er)旗(qi)地(di)(di)(di)铁(tie)站(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)位(wei)于北(bei)京(jing)地(di)(di)(di)铁(tie)十三号线(xian)(xian)与(yu)昌(chang)(chang)平(ping)线(xian)(xian)交汇处——北(bei)京(jing)市海淀区(qu)(qu)上地(di)(di)(di)科技(ji)园(yuan)区(qu)(qu)信息路东(dong)北(bei)面(mian)(北(bei)京(jing)市四环外)(如(ru)图(tu) 5-1 所示),西(xi)临上地(di)(di)(di)东(dong)路以及高架的(de) G7 京(jing)新高速公(gong)路,东(dong)临京(jing)包铁(tie)路,是北(bei)京(jing)地(di)(di)(di)铁(tie)十三号线(xian)(xian)与(yu)昌(chang)(chang)平(ping)线(xian)(xian)的(de)换乘车站(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)。地(di)(di)(di)铁(tie)十三号线(xian)(xian)经过(guo)西(xi)城(cheng)、海淀、朝阳、东(dong)城(cheng)四个(ge)行(xing)(xing)政(zheng)区(qu)(qu),西(xi)边(bian)终(zhong)点(dian)站(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)为西(xi)直门轨交枢纽(niu)(niu)站(zhan)(zhan)(zhan),东(dong)边(bian)终(zhong)点(dian)站(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)可到达(da)东(dong)直门轨交枢纽(niu)(niu)站(zhan)(zhan)(zhan),西(xi)二(er)旗(qi)地(di)(di)(di)铁(tie)站(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)是地(di)(di)(di)铁(tie)十三号线(xian)(xian)的(de)中间(jian)站(zhan)(zhan)(zhan),乘客可通过(guo)乘坐该线(xian)(xian)路到达(da)该线(xian)(xian)路经过(guo)的(de)不同(tong)行(xing)(xing)政(zheng)区(qu)(qu)域;不仅如(ru)此,西(xi)二(er)旗(qi)地(di)(di)(di)铁(tie)站(zhan)(zhan)(zhan)也是与(yu)地(di)(di)(di)铁(tie)昌(chang)(chang)平(ping)线(xian)(xian)换乘过(guo)程中的(de)重要交通枢纽(niu)(niu)。

图 5-1 西二旗地铁站位置

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结论

在站城(cheng)一体(ti)化(hua)发(fa)展(zhan)模式的(de)(de)(de)背景下,我国城(cheng)市(shi)建设进(jin)入了新的(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展(zhan)时期,高速的(de)(de)(de)城(cheng)市(shi)化(hua)带给了城(cheng)市(shi)前所未(wei)有的(de)(de)(de)机遇(yu),同时也(ye)带来了城(cheng)市(shi)交通(tong)拥堵问题。随着城(cheng)市(shi)化(hua)进(jin)程的(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展(zhan),停(ting)(ting)车换乘使用者的(de)(de)(de)数量(liang)必将呈现(xian)指数式增(zeng)长,停(ting)(ting)车换乘系统的(de)(de)(de)公共停(ting)(ting)车空间(jian)设计更(geng)加值

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